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BIOA01H3 Study Guide - Pineal Gland, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Glycogen

Biological Sciences
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Importance of Endocrine System
Endocrine system like the nervous regulates many metabolic
functions. While the brain acts through neurotransmitters,
endocrine system acts through Hormones. Human body has
numerous ductless glands. The endocrine system consists of these
numerous ductless glands. These glands are not grouped together
but are actually distributed throughout our body. As the name
implies, these ductless glands do not have ducts and thus, they do not discharge their
secretion directly in to any organs .Endocrine glands deliver hormones right in to the
blood stream which then is carried to the organs that are supposed to be receptors for
that hormones. Hormones play a significant part in metabolism. They regulate many of
the important metabolic activities of cells and organs (Edwards, 1990).
Figure 1:Major Endocrine glands distributed in human body
Adrenal glands- The Stress Hormones

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Stressed? strained? Calculus exam tomorrow? Perhaps you are visiting your in-laws for
the first time or may be you are worrying about the big business presentation, the kind
that has to blow your bosses mind and the special someone? Yeah, drinking water and
getting sufficient rest will positively help before the big day but knowing about your
adrenal glands will certainly be advantageous.
Location, Structure and Function
Adrenal glands are found immediately above each kidney as shown in Figure 2 and
Figure 3. There is a right adrenal gland and left adrenal gland. Adrenal glands contain
two glands each which are held in a shell. The inner gland, adrenal medulla, is encircled
by adrenal cortex. The brain or the hypothalamus is responsible for the function of both
the medulla and the cortex but by different ways. The adrenal cortex is regulated by
negative feedback by the hypothalamus and the adrenocorticotropic hormone while the
medulla is regulated by the hypothalamus only (Guiseppe et al., 2003)(SEER's Training,
Figure 2: Location of adrenal glands
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