[BIOA01H3] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (119 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Nov 2016
School
UTSC
Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA01H3
UTSC
BIOA01H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Module 2: Lecture 1: Molecules of Life Chemical and physical principals
Biology is the study of life
How do we differentiate living from non-living?
Living Cells
1. Complex structures and pathways to carry out any jobs that need to be done in order to grow,
divide and reproduce precise spatial organization
2. Ability to respond to the environment and change according to the needs
3. Reproduce
4. Evolve
Can living organisms arise from non-living?
Non-living and living systems are composed of elements, some that are the same and others that
are different. Ex: Earth’s crust compared to human body
Oxygen is an important player in both earth’s crust and human body
The Earth’s crust has silicon, which is replaced with carbon in the human body
Carbon is the key building block organic molecule
Another player in living systems is hydrogen. There are two laws that both loving and non-living
systems have to obey: the laws of Thermodynamics. 1st law states that energy can neither be
created nor destroyed. We can change its form (e.g. Potential--> kinetic, releases heat). We can
change its form, but can't make more energy. Total energy in the universe is constant.
Second law of thermodynamics
Is about entropy. Degree of disorder in the universe increases. This is a problem. When you
create order, you decrease entropy.
Energy is needed to create order. In order to have higher levels of organization would appear to
violate the second law, but it is still prevented by the release of heat.
Entropy is motion of molecules and heat causes motion of molecules
Cells are the simplest self-replicating entity that can exist as an independent unit of life.
All organisms are made of either single cell or ensemble of cells
Evolution changes overtime, we can see that overtime there is a change. There is more
prokaryotes, microbial, compared to the eukaryotes.
Question: What is a characteristic of all organisms and all non-living materials?
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Answer: Subject to basic laws of chemistry and physics.
Core Concepts for Molecules and Chemical Bonds:
Atoms in the fundamental unit of matter
Atoms can combine to form molecules linked by chemical bonds
Water is essential for life-IMPORTANT- we are composed of mostly water, regulating internal
temperature, earth mostly composed of water, regulates temperature of earth.
Carbon is the back bone of organic molecules. Organic molecules include proteins, nucleic acids,
carbohydrates and lipids, each of which is built from simpler units
Life likely originated on earth through a set of chemical reactions that give rise to molecules of
life
Atom
A fundamental unit of matter
An element is composed of an atom
Is a dense central nucleus made up of positively charged protons and electrically neutral
particles (neutron)
(-) electrons move around the nucleus
Max # of e- in any orbital is 2
Atoms with more than 2e- have multiple orbitals, differing in size, shape and distance from
nucleus
Orbitals exist in different energy levels or shells
1st shell has up to 2e-, has 1 orbital
2nd shell has up to 8e-, has 4 orbitals
Ex. Carbon has 6e-, 2e- occupy 1st orbital in 1st shell. Remaining 4e- are on 2nd shell
Periodic table of elements
Vertical column are called groups or families, members of the same group have the same
number of electrons in the outer most shell.
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Document Summary

Module 2: lecture 1: molecules of life chemical and physical principals. Living cells: complex structures and pathways to carry out any jobs that need to be done in order to grow, divide and reproduce precise spatial organization, ability to respond to the environment and change according to the needs. Non-living and living systems are composed of elements, some that are the same and others that are different. Oxygen is an important player in both earth"s crust and human body. The earth"s crust has silicon, which is replaced with carbon in the human body. Carbon is the key building block organic molecule. There are two laws that both loving and non-living systems have to obey: the laws of thermodynamics. 1st law states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. We can change its form (e. g. potential--> kinetic, releases heat). We can change its form, but can"t make more energy.

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