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[BIOA01H3] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 83 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Mark Fitzpatrick
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
BIOA01H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 2: Microevolution - Genetic Changes Within Populations
Evolution Demo
-3 million years between us and hominins, which is not a lot of time of mammal domination
-everything happened quickly and led to our existence; this is because of the amount of
oxygen in the atmosphere and the extinction events, especially those of the dinosaurs
What is evolution?
-all life, present and past, are connected by a common ancestor — future organisms will also
be connected by this ancestor unless life evolves again, completely independently
-evolutionary biologists are interested in the connectivity between organisms and how
populations & species are changing over time
-evolution: change over time
-biological evolution:
genetic changes within a population, individuals do not evolve
change in allele frequencies in populations
!1
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-microevolution:
evolution happening on a smaller scale — changes within species
scientists would do studies on natural selection & other evolutionary forces
-macroevolution:
changes between species on a larger scale to see how they are connected (phylogenetics)
look at broader expanses, e.g. multiple species within a genus or multiple families
-requirements for evolution
changes that have been selected for need to carry forward to the next population
heritable changes in DNA— due to mutations, genetic drift, migration, natural selection
Effect of Evolution on My Life
-famous quote by TD: “nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”
you can be working on cellular biology and only understand so much when you look within
such a narrow scale — must be cognizant of the fact that all of the things you’re looking at
have evolved, are evolving, and are under selection
-most scientists say that Darwin’s discovery of evolution was the most important discovery of
all, even though he wasn’t sitting around doing lab work — his observations about the
connectivity of life and change of life are applicable to all levels of bio
-Penicillin
product of Penicillium mould, represents an evolved response to bacteria
first antibiotic drug based on a naturally occurring substance
in WW2, soldiers were dying from infection more often than war related injuries - this
changed with the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming
discovery: was working with the Staph bacteria and spread a plate; in 24 hours, there was
a growth on the agar because it was left uncovered and the mould got onto it; there was a
region of no bacteria growing because something was impeding the growth - that is where
penicillin was being released by the mould, naturally defending itself against the bacteria
and creating a region of inhibited growth
4 years of overuse caused 14% of Staphylococcus bacteria strains to be resistant but by
1950, more than 50% were resistant because they are quickly evolving counterstrategies to
!2
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