[BIOA01H3] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 40 pages long Study Guide!

237 views40 pages
Published on 1 Dec 2016
School
UTSC
Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA01H3
UTSC
BIOA01H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 40 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 40 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Lecture 25 Chapter 16
- Performance (of a population), feedback hih oe suies, ad hih oes do’t, revision
(the new population).
What is Evolution?
- Things evolving (not just biologically), change through time.
- Biological Sense:
o Changes in allele frequency in populations, in particular genetic changes in population.
o Individuals do not evolve, populations evolve.
o Selection acts on population, but it requires genetic variation in individuals that make up
that population.
Microevolution/Macroevolution
- Microevolution:
o Variation within a population, or between populations of the same specie.
- Macroevolution:
o Phylogeny
o Variation of species.
o How insects are related to each other?
Requirements for Evolution
- Must have heritable variation in DNA.
- Ca’t at o athig that is’t iheitale eause thee is o a of aig that o to the et
generation.
- Population evolve through mutations, genetic drift, migration, and natural selection.
Genome of Cancer
- Smokers get 1 new mutation every 15 cigarettes they smoke.
- The effect is instantaneous, not an accumulated effect.
How does population affect my life?
- Penicillin: chemical normally give off by fungi to stop the bacteria from encroaching that can be
put in a pill.
o First anti-biotic drug based on a natural substance.
- Throughout time the bacteria becomes resistance.
- Why? The bacteria are evolving.
- Bacteria evolve faster 5 years is like few thousand years for humans.
- This changes medicine they had to come up with many isomers and many different antibiotics.
- We are running because of how quickly bacteria evolve.
Microevolution
- Heritable variation in genetics of a population.
- Microevolution under strong natural selection can happen under a short amount of time.
Phenotypic Variation
- There is no one value of a population individuals vary in a population.
- When we can see this variation, it is known as phenotypic.
- Phenotypic plasticity:
o Virtue that some of us can perform differently in different environment.
- Phenotypic variation has two different groups:
o Quantitative and Qualitative Variation.
- Quantitative: quantity, measure. Things we need to measure.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 40 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Controlled by multiple gene, often known as quantitative traits or complex traits.
o Eg. Behaviour, disease resistance.
o Go out and gather a numerical value for individuals.
- Qualitative: there no measure, but an actually phenotype, eg. Red, tall or short, states.
- Polymorphisms: many types.
o There are variations within a type (morph).
o There can be quantities variation within a morph.
Quantitative Variation
- We need to look at distribution, usually in terms of mean and variance.
- The both graph have the same mean, which the first one has more of a variance.
- For the second one the variance is much smaller, most individuals are not much different than
the mean trait for the population.
- There are differences in population (country).
- There is variation within a population, and within a species there is variation between
populations.
Qualitative Variation
- eg. The snails.
- Different morphs.
Genes and Environment
- There is often no real correlation between genotypes and phenotype.
- Sometimes the phenotypic variation is due to the underlying gene, and other time it is due to
environmental differences. Sometimes it is because of the two, which is known as gbye
interaction reaction norm.
- Only genetic differences can evolve only genetic difference in phenotype is inheritable.
- How to determine how much of a gene is due to trait and how much is due to environment?
- Keep the gene the same, work within a family, and vary the environment. If there is variation
within a phenotype, this must be an environmental effect because there is no variation in the
genotype.
o Hydrangea varies colour due to the acidity of the soil polymorphism.
- Or the opposite can be done take a whole group of individuals breed then differently (like
Mendel), or do selection or experiments.
Mini-Case Study
- Go out into the field, trap some mice, bring them back to the lab, watch them run around in a
box, some of them a pooping all over the place.
- Some of them are running around, while the others are just sitting. They are taken from the
same population in the valley, some species.
- There is variation in activity. How can I figure out whether the variation in activity is genetic?
o Selectively bread individuals with different activities.
Genetic Activity in Mice
- The green line shows the controlled population.
- At each generation they randomly took individuals and bread them together.
- The red line are individuals that were put in there activity asset.
- They were the most active took a female that was most active and a male that was most active
and mated them together.
o Took there individuals and the male and female that moved the most were breed
together, and so on.
- After 10 generation, the controlled experiment remained about the same about 5000
revolution per day on a mouse wheel.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 40 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Performance (of a population), feedback (cid:894)(cid:449)hi(cid:272)h o(cid:374)e su(cid:396)(cid:448)i(cid:448)es, a(cid:374)d (cid:449)hi(cid:272)h o(cid:374)es do(cid:374)"t(cid:895), revision (the new population). Things evolving (not just biologically), change through time. Biological sense: changes in allele frequency in populations, in particular genetic changes in population. Selection acts on population, but it requires genetic variation in individuals that make up that population. Microevolution: variation within a population, or between populations of the same specie. Ca(cid:374)"t a(cid:272)t o(cid:374) a(cid:374)(cid:455)thi(cid:374)g that is(cid:374)"t i(cid:374)he(cid:396)ita(cid:271)le (cid:271)e(cid:272)ause the(cid:396)e is (cid:374)o (cid:449)a(cid:455) of (cid:272)a(cid:396)(cid:396)(cid:455)i(cid:374)g that o(cid:374) to the (cid:374)e(cid:454)t generation. Population evolve through mutations, genetic drift, migration, and natural selection. Smokers get 1 new mutation every 15 cigarettes they smoke. The effect is instantaneous, not an accumulated effect. Penicillin: chemical normally give off by fungi to stop the bacteria from encroaching that can be put in a pill. First anti-biotic drug based on a natural substance. We are running because of how quickly bacteria evolve.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.