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BIOA01H3 Final: BIOA01 Module 3 - Genetics (Term Test Notes)

31 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Mark Fitzpatrick

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BIOA01 Fall 2017 Module 3: Genetics (Dr. Ashok) DNA 1. DNA sorts genetic information 2. Genetic information is stored in genes 3. Turning on gene or gene expression ultimately causes an effect on organism 4. Gene regulation controls when this process should occur A causal relationship between structure & function store & transmit energy Griffiths Experiment a) Virulent bacteria mouse dies of pneumonia b) Nonvirulent bacteria mouse remains healthy c) Killed virulent bacteria mouse remains healthy d) Killed virulent & live non-virulent bacteria mouse dies of pneumonia Avery, Macleod, & McCartys Experiment 1. DNA is extracted from heat-treated virulent cells, along with trace amounts of RNA & protein 2. Untreated extract can transform non-virulent cells into virulent cells 3. Only extracts treated with enzyme that destroys DNA were unable to transform nonvirulent bacteria virulent virulent bacteria bacteria (killed) RNase Protease DNase RNase Protease DNase virulent & virulent & non-virulent non-virulent non-virulent non-virulent non-virulent non-virulent bacteria bacteria bacteria bacteria bacteria bacteria Phosphodiester Bonds 1. Sugar-phosphate backbones wind around the outside of molecule & bases point inward 2. Strands are antiparallel 3. Base A pairs with T, base C pairs with G 2 Hydrogen Bonds Bases are held together by H-bonds o A-T 2 H-bonds o C-G 3 H-bonds Contribute to DNA stability along with base stacking Compact DNA DNA must fit in cells Each DNA in eukaryotic cell forms 1 chromosome DNA is packaged with proteins Histone proteins that interact with DNA without regard to sequence Chromatin histone-DNA complexes that further compact DNA 3 DNA Replication Parental strand serve as templates for daughter strands Daughter strand synthesized strand of DNA Like Induces Like 1. Incoming nucleotides are accepted if they correctly base pair with the template 2. The 3 OH of growing strand attacks high-energy phosphate bond of incoming nucleotide to initiate synthesis reaction Hypothetical Models Semiconservative model new DNA duplex consists of one parental & one daughter strand Conservative model new DNA duplex consists of 2 daughter strands Meselson-Stahl Experiment 1. Both strands are labelled with heavy5N. Molecules form band with heavy density DNA. 15 15 2. After 1 round of replication in absence oN, parental strand still contaiN, daughter strand contains14N. Daughter DNA molecules form a band with intermediate density. 15 3. After 2 rounds, of DNA duplex molecules have one strand N bands one intermediate density & one light density. 4. Concludes semiconservative model. Eukaryotic DNA Replication After 2 rounds of DNA replication in labelled medium, one daughter molecule is half-labelled, & the other is fully labelled. Occurs in 5-3 direction 4
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