BIOA01H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Start Codon, Down Syndrome, Tata Box

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Published on 10 Jan 2018
School
Course
BIOA01
Fall 2017
Module 3: Genetics (Dr. Ashok)
DNA
1. DNA sorts genetic information
2. Genetic information is stored in genes
3. Turning on gene or gene expression ultimately causes an effect on organism
4. Gene regulation controls when this process should occur
A causal relationship between structure & function store & transmit energy
Griffith’s Experiment
a) Virulent bacteria mouse dies of pneumonia
b) Nonvirulent bacteria mouse remains healthy
c) Killed virulent bacteria mouse remains healthy
d) Killed virulent & live non-virulent bacteria mouse dies of pneumonia
Avery, Macleod, & McCarty’s Experiment
1. DNA is extracted from heat-treated virulent cells, along with trace amounts of RNA & protein
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2
2. Untreated extract can transform non-virulent cells into virulent cells
3. Only extracts treated with enzyme that destroys DNA were unable to transform nonvirulent
bacteria
Phosphodiester Bonds
1. Sugar-phosphate backbones wind around the outside of molecule & bases point inward
2. Strands are antiparallel
3. Base A pairs with T, base C pairs with G
virulent
bacteria
RNase
non-virulent
bacteria
Protease
non-virulent
bacteria
DNase
non-virulent
bacteria
virulent
bacteria
(killed)
RNase
virulent &
non-virulent
bacteria
Protease
virulent &
non-virulent
bacteria
DNase
non-virulent
bacteria
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Hydrogen Bonds
Bases are held together by H-bonds
o A-T 2 H-bonds
o C-G 3 H-bonds
Contribute to DNA stability along with base stacking
Compact DNA
DNA must fit in cells
Each DNA in eukaryotic cell forms 1 chromosome
DNA is packaged with proteins
Histone proteins that interact with DNA without regard to sequence
Chromatin histone-DNA complexes that further compact DNA
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Document Summary

Griffith"s experiment: virulent bacteria mouse dies of pneumonia, nonvirulent bacteria mouse remains healthy, killed virulent bacteria mouse remains healthy, killed virulent & live non-virulent bacteria mouse dies of pneumonia. Dnase non-virulent non-virulent non-virulent bacteria bacteria bacteria virulent & non-virulent bacteria virulent & non-virulent bacteria non-virulent bacteria. Phosphodiester bonds: sugar-phosphate backbones wind around the outside of molecule & bases point inward, strands are antiparallel, base a pairs with t, base c pairs with g. Hydrogen bonds: bases are held together by h-bonds, a-t 2 h-bonds, c-g 3 h-bonds, contribute to dna stability along with base stacking. Dna replication: parental strand serve as templates for daughter strands, daughter strand synthesized strand of dna. Like induces like: incoming nucleotides are accepted if they correctly base pair with the template, the 3" oh of growing strand attacks high-energy phosphate bond of incoming nucleotide to initiate synthesis reaction.

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