BIOA01H3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 199 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Mar 2018
School
UTSC
Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA01H3
UTSC
BIOA01H3
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lec 02: Microevolution-Genetic Changes Within Populations
Event
Distance (m)
Time (Mya)
Formation of Earth
15
4500
First Evidence of
‘life’-Self
Replicating
13
3800
Oxygen producing
Cyanobacteria
9
2700
Significant Oxygen
in Atmosphere
8
2500
Multicellular
Organisms
2
600
Plants Move Onto
Land
1.55
465
Amphibians
Emerge From
Water
1.2
370
Trilobites
1.17
350
P-T Extinction
0.83
250
Age of Dinosaurs
0.8
240
Pangaea Breaks
0.67
200
K-PG extinction
0.22
66
Mammals
0.2
60
Hominins
0.01
3
Modern Humans
0.0007
0
Evolution
Definition: changes in the genetic make-up of populations over time, sometimes resulting in
adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species
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Biological evolution
Definition: changes in the genetic make-up of populations; individuals do not evolve on its own
Penicillin
● antibiotic drug that kills and/or inhibit the growth of bacteria
● comes from product of penicillium fungus
● evolved response to protect from the attack of bacteria
○ bacteria has evolved to resist antibiotics
"zone of inhibited growth”—> no bacterial growth
Microevolution
Definition: population level changes within a species
● heritable variation in genetics of a population
○ ex: red ladybug vs black ladybug (variation in colour)
Macroevolution
Definition: changes between a species over time and breeding is not possible due to major
changes in the species
● ex: apes evolved into modern humans or chimpanzees
Phenotypic Variation
Definition: heritable traits in physical appearance and/or function
There are 2 categories of phenotypic variation:
1. Quantitative Variation
Definition: characteristics with a range of variation and can be quantified
● ex: Bahaman land snails
○ difference in size of opening
○ number of ridges
○ number of whorls
○ degree of redness
Qualitative Variation
Definition: characteristics with distinct features
● polymorphism: ability to assume different forms or shapes
○ ex: ladybug variation; black bug with 2 red spots or red bug with 2 black spots
Bell Curve Distribution
● some individuals are outliers but majority are in the middle
○ ex: height of population can be very tall, very short or average
■ if only taking the average of one gender’s height, the average height also
varies (male average height vs female average height)
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Document Summary

Definition: changes in the genetic make-up of populations adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species. Definition: changes in the genetic make-up of . Polymorphism: ability to assume different forms or shapes. Ex: ladybug variation; black bug with 2 red spots or red bug with 2 black spots. Phenotypic variation due to genetics and/or environmental factors. Mutation: allele is changed such that it alters the genetic make-up of the gene. Lec 03: hardy-weinberg and the agents of evolution. Made up of individuals of same species, each with different genotypes. Incomplete dominance: individuals that are capable of showing traits of two different alleles. Use hardy-weinberg equilibrium to calculate if the population is evolving. Conclusion of experiment: the population of snapdragons are does not match the actual results. Disadvantageous mutations: harms an organisms: gene flow. Movement of alleles across different populations: genetic drift. Random change in allele frequencies: natural selection.

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