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study guide for lec 1 and 25

by OC4

Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA01H3
Professor
Clare Hasenkampf

Page:
of 3
BGYA01
CORRECTION LECTURE 1 CLASS NOTES
Page 2 The sentence “The posted class notes (including the listed independent study assignments
and including the that are referred to in the lecture notes) are the source for test questions for the
lecture material. “ should read
“The posted class notes (including the listed independent study assignments and including all of
the Tables and Figures referred to in the lecture notes) are the source for test questions for the
lecture material.”
CORRECTION LECTURE 2 CLASS NOTES
One very important monosaccharide is glucose.
Its specific formula is C6 H12 O6.. Figure 3.11, page 43
Should be Figure 3.13, page 50.
FOR BOTH LECTURES I FORGOT TO MENTION THE IMPORTANT FACT THAT
Proteins are the most abundant category of the large biomolecules.
Proteins are extremely important molecules in cells. Proteins are the workhorses of the cell.
1) some proteins act as biological catalysts to drive chemical reactions, we call these
protein catalysts, enzymes.
2) some proteins form important structural features of the cell.
3) some proteins serve as signal molecules
4) some proteins function a signal receivers
5) some proteins are chaperonins
6) There are still many other important functions of proteins.
LECTURE 1 TEST STUDY GUIDE (I.E. WHAT MIGHT BE ON THE TEST)
Be sure you understand and can define all underlined words given below.
Understand why we say the cell is the fundamental unit of life.
Know the definition of the term resolving power, and the resolving power of the human eye, the
compound light microscope and the electron microscope. Know which type of microscope is
needed to resolve most cells, and which type is needed to detect macromolecules.
The four major categories of large biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic
acids) are largely composed of six elements.
Know which elements are present in each of the 4 major categories of macromolecules.
Know that Polymerization is a type of condensation reaction and a dehydration reaction.
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Three of the categories of large biomolecules (the carbohydrates, the proteins, and the nucleic
acids) are made in polymerization reactions with the general features:
A---H + B---OH ----> A---B + H20
monomer 1 monomer 2 dimer water
PROTEINS
Proteins are an example of a polymer. The monomer units of proteins are the amino acids. You
do not have to memorize the specific structure of the 20 amino acids but you should be able to
draw the generalized structure of an amino acid. Be able to recognize and create a peptide
linkage.
Understand the importance of the ‘R’ group of an amino acid. Understand what the primary,
secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of a protein is, and what determines each.
Know the size of an average protein, and the important types of roles proteins have in cells.
INDEPENDENT STUDY #1
A. Pages 38-40. Understand the differences between the primary, secondary, tertiary and
quaternary structure of proteins.
B. Lab manual page 15, the metric system
LECTURE 2 TEST STUDY GUIDE (I.E. WHAT MIGHT BE ON THE TEST)
Be sure you understand and can define all underlined words given below.
Understand the role of chaperonin proteins in determining protein configuration.
Understand the term prosthetic group, and be able to give examples.
Understand the tem ligand.
Understand the terms denaturation and what conditions can lead to it.
Understand the terms enzymes and catalyst and know the three examples of the way enzymes
can speed up chemical reactions.
Know the approximate bond energy of a covalent bond. Be able to name the types of weaker
interactions and know they have much lower bond energy than covalent bonds. Know the
consequence of the bond energy strength.
CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are an example of a polymer. The monomer units of carbohydrates are the
monosaccharides. Know the general chemical formula for a carbohydrate. You do not have to
memorize the structure of any of the carbohydrates. But you should understand the difference
between a monosaccharide, oligosaccharide, and polysaccharide, and be able to recognize each
type, and be able to label the glycosidic linkages. You should be able to distinguish an ! (alpha)
or "- (beta) glycosidic linkage.
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You should understand that the different way the glycosidic linkages are created can greatly
affect the biological properties of polysaccharide as exemplified in figure 3.13 for cellulose,
plant starch (amylose) and animal starch glycogen).
LIPIDS
All lipids share the characteristics that they are insoluble in water. The major categories of lipids
are triglycerides, phospholipids, carotenoids and steroids. You do not have to memorize the
structure of lipids but you need to be able to recognize the structure of glycerol and fatty acids,
and be able to combine them into a triglyceride. Be able to distinguish a triglyceride from a
phospholipid.
Know the nature of the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats. Understand the terms
hydrophobic, hydrophilic and understand how a phospholipid bilayer can form compartments for
cells.
INDEPENDENT STUDY #2
A. Lipids: Understand why fats are solid at room temperature, but oils are liquids are room
temperature. page 50
B. Waxes understand their main features but you don’t have to memorize their structure.
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