Exam Notes 1

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Published on 8 Apr 2012
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Bio Exam notes
Lecture 12
Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind
This is the PROPERTY OF LIFE
The transmission of traits from generation to generation is inheritance or
heredity
Offspring are SIMILAR to parents BUT not IDENTICAL
There is variation between parents and offspring
Mechanisms of heredity and variation are examined in genetics
There are two particular explanations for genetics and stuffs
oBlending hypothesis – tend toward uniformity
oParticulate (=gene) hypothesis
Mendel used scientific approach to identify Laws of Inheritance
oEarly studies of reciprocal crosses showed that both male and female
parents contribute equally to characteristics inherited by offspring
oFoundation for genetics worked out by Mendel with peas
Published in 1866
oUsed quantitative approach to propose gene theory
oAfter meiosis described, researchers realized chromosomes/meiosis
provided support for Mendel’s theory
Inheritance terms
Heritable = passed from parents to offspring
Character = observable feature (e.g. flower colour) controlled by 1 or more genes
Trait = alternative forms (alleles) of a character (e.g. red/white/blue/purple)
Unit of inheritance = gene
oPortions of chromosomal DNA that encode for a particular protein with a
specific function (character)
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Document Summary

Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind. The transmission of traits from generation to generation is inheritance or heredity. Offspring are similar to parents but not identical. There is variation between parents and offspring. Mechanisms of heredity and variation are examined in genetics. There are two particular explanations for genetics and stuffs: blending hypothesis tend toward uniformity, particulate (=gene) hypothesis. Mendel used scientific approach to identify laws of inheritance: early studies of reciprocal crosses showed that both male and female parents contribute equally to characteristics inherited by offspring, foundation for genetics worked out by mendel with peas. Published in 1866: used quantitative approach to propose gene theory, after meiosis described, researchers realized chromosomes/meiosis provided support for mendel"s theory. Character = observable feature (e. g. flower colour) controlled by 1 or more genes. Trait = alternative forms (alleles) of a character (e. g. red/white/blue/purple)

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