Lec01 - Tree of Life.doc

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22 Apr 2012
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Tree of Life – Plants
Slide One –
Bryophytes AKA Mosses
Typically very small / inconspicuous
Compare bryophyte life cycle to others
Slide Two
Slide Three
Eukaryotic Plants
Slide Four/Five/Six –
Green algae are the evolutionary predecessors of plants
Slide Seven
Bryophytes are represented by four main branches of plants
oLiverworts
oTwo Mosses
oHornworts
Bryophytes don’t fossilize very well
Slide Eight –
Angiosperms – Largest
Bryophytes – Second Largest
Ferns - Inbetween
Lycophytes – Second Smallest
Gymnosperms – Smallest
Slide Nine – liverworts
Flattened bodies
oGrow right on top of soil
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oGrow reproductive structures (umbrella-like)
Male – Antheridia
Female - Archegonium
Slide Ten – mosses
Largest group within bryophytes
Flattened and small
Grow in cushion packs or more spread out in groups
Slide Eleven – hornworts
Main body is similar to liverworts
Don’t grow umbrella-like structures but rather horns
Slide Twelve – generalized alternation of generations
Lifecycle perspective
oContains two generations
First generation consists of sperm and egg which are haploid
Fertilization leads to doubling of chromosomes
Diploid generation undergoes mitosis from zygote to embryo and
again into sporophytes
Sporophytes undergo meiosis into individual spores (reduction)
Mitosis again into gametophyte
oMosses have haploid lifecycle dominance
oFlowering plants and Gymnosperms have diploid lifecycle dominance
Slide Thirteen – lifecycle of bryophytes
Male gametophyte has a cup-shaped organ which contain antheridia which
contain spermatozoids (haploid)
Female gametophyte has a flask like structure which accepts the spermatozoid
(having only a single egg cell)
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