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Lec20 - Metabolic Rate.doc

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Mary Olaveson
Study Guide

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Metabolic Rate
1 metabolic rate
Overview of cellular metabolism
oOxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced
Direct and indirect Calorimetry
oMeasurements of metabolic rate
Heat (direct measure)
Metabolic rate and body size
oLarger the animal the more food it requires the greater the metabolic
As a whole
oMetabolic rate as a function of body weight; smaller animals require
more energy on a per weight basis than a larger animal
2 overview of cellular respiration
Starting with glucose:
oOxidation of glucose:
Glucose + O2 H2O + CO2
Glycolysis produces pyruvate
Pyruvate converted into acetyl Co-A
Moves through the citric acid cycle
oOr krebs cycle
oProduces CO2 NADH and FADH
oNADH and FADH carry electrons through the electron transport chain
Electron transport chain
Ultimate goal of ATP production
3 aerobic glycolysis – total +2 ATP

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Glucose (6C)
Glucose-6-phosphate (6C)
oRequires 3 ATP 3 ADP
Fructose-6-phosphate (6C)
Fructose-1,6-diphosphate (6C)
oRequires 3 ATP 3 ADP
Dihydroxy-acetone phosphate (2x3C)
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (2x3C)
o2 NAD + 2H2 2 NADH + 2 H+
1,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid (2x3C)
o2 ADP 2 ATP
3-Phosphoglyceric acid (2x3C)
2-Phosphoglyceric acid (2x3C)
2-Phosphglyceric acid (2x3C)
Phosphoenolpyruvic acid (2x3C)
o2 ADP 2 ATP
Pyruvic acid (2x3C)
4 krebs (citric acid) cycle
Per glucose:
o6 CO2
o8 NADH + H+
o2 FADH + H+
o2 ATP
Don’t need to know this pathway for this course
Pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl co-A

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Moves through krebs cycle
Major point:
oThree stages in the krebs cycle reaction
1 – conversion of pyruvic acid into acetyl co-A
2 – breaking down carbohydrates
3 – CO2 is produced
oActive metabolism
Breaking down carbohydrates
Producing carbon dioxide
Production of NADH and FADH
Referred to as reducing equivalents and pass their
electrons along the electron transport chain
5 electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
Don’t need to know the pathway for ETC
ETC exists on the inner mitochondrial membrane
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the ETC
Electrons are in the form of a proton (hydrogen ion)
Oxygen is reduced into a water molecule
ATP is produced
Hydrogen ions create a proton gradient
oBetween intermembrane space and matrix
oCollapses with ADP synthase to produce ATP
Proton pumping by electron transport chain complexes
The proton electrochemical gradient: an energy store
Back-diffusion of protons in an ordinary cell
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