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Chapter 52 notes (has all information that was on 2011 exam)

5 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA02H3
Professor
Kamini Persaud

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Chapter 52: Ecology and The Distribution of Life
52.1: What is Ecology
Ecology: scientific study of the rich and varied interactions between organisms and
their environments: organism influence and are influenced by the environment
Environment: encompasses both abiotic and biotic factors
Communities: systems embracing all the organisms in an area
Ecosystems: systems embracing all the organisms in an area of a physical
environment
Biosphere: all regions of the planet where organisms live
52.2: How are climates distributed on earth:
Climate: average atmospheric conditions over a long time (varies mainly due to solar
energy)
Higher altitude=less solar energy received than at the equator
Differences in air temperature among different regions on earth are determined by
solar energy input (impacted by angle that hits earth and amount of atmosphere
that the energy travels through)
As a parcel of air rises, it expands and its pressure and temperature drop=release
moisture
As a parcel of air descends, it compresses and its pressure and temp increase=take
up moisture
1.Tropics: air heated by sun and risesexpands releases moisture as it cools
2.At 30ºC N/S, wind patterns where the air tends to fall and picks up
moisture(w/increasing pressure)dry deserts have dry air because winds take up all
the moisture
3.Winds move to the equator and causes the temperature to rise decrease in
temperaturemoisture releasesprecipitation: Intertropical Convergence Zone:
where there are heavy rains
www.notesolution.com
4.At 60 ºC N/S, air rises again and releases moisturedescends at the polespicks up
moistureas earth spins faster at equator than at poles, air masses deflected right
in N hemisphere and left in S hemispherecauses westerlies/trade winds which
affect temp/climate of current and terrestrial regions
5.Over a mountainwind travels up and releases water on one side and not on the
other=rain-shadowopposite vegetation on different sides of mountain due to
difference in precipitation (excess/deficient) =wet/dry
6.Patterns of temperature and precipitation also strongly influence the distribution of
plants and biomes.
7.Organisms must adapt to changes in their environment i.e. fire, storm, or predator
require an immediate responses
oPlants adapt to warm conditions by reducing water loss/over heating by
positioning leaves differently
oShort term changes in behavior
oHibernation, migration, dispersal, etc
52.3 What is a Biome:
Biome: terrestrial environment defined by the growth forms of its plants
Defined by seasonal temperatures and precipitation patterns, activity of different
types of organisms throughout the year and growth forms of plans as well as
patterns of species richness (number of species)
BiomeCharacteristics
TundraHave migratory animals-found at high altitudes/mountains
Low temperature and precipitation-Arctic at high levels
Animals hibernate or go dormant for much of the year
Low vegetation (shrubs/herbs perennials)
Arctic tundra is underlying permafrost (wet due to poor drainage)
Flat land never thaws out
Boreal ForestLong cold winters/short summer
Many migratory birds
Dominated by evergreens in N Hemisphere (advantageous)
Can start photosynthesis quickly in growing season
Temperate Deciduous
ForestPrecipitation is distributed evenly and temperature fluctuate
dramatically
Species rich: amphibians, summer insects
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 52: Ecology and The Distribution of Life 52.1: What is Ecology Ecology: scientific study of the rich and varied interactions between organisms and their environments: organism influence and are influenced by the environment Environment: encompasses both abiotic and biotic factors Communities: systems embracing all the organisms in an area Ecosystems: systems embracing all the organisms in an area of a physical environment Biosphere: all regions of the planet where organisms live 52.2: How are climates distributed on earth: Climate: average atmospheric conditions over a long time (varies mainly due to solar energy) Higher altitude=less solar energy received than at the equator Differences in air temperature among different regions on earth are determined by solar energy input (impacted by angle that hits earth and amount of atmosphere that the energy travels through) As a parcel of air rises, it expands and its pressure and temperature drop=release moisture As a parcel of air descends, it compresses and its pressure and temp increase=take up moisture 1. Tropics: air heated by sun and risesexpands releases moisture as it cools 2. At 30C NS, wind patterns where the air tends to fall and picks up moisture(wincreasing pressure)dry deserts have dry air because winds take up all the moisture 3. Winds move to the equator and causes the temperature to rise decrease in temperaturemoisture releasesprecipitation: Intertropical Convergence Zone: where there are heavy rains www.notesolution.com
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