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Chapter 22 notes (has all information on 2011 exam)

7 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOA02H3
Professor
Kamini Persaud

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Chapter 53: Behavior and Behavioral Ecology
53.1 What questions do biologists ask about ecology:
Ethology: study of animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective
Interactions related to inherited mechanisms and experience
Proximate=mechanisms=how
Ultimate=causes=why
53.2 How do genes and environment interact to shape behavior:
the observation that a given behavior is stereotypic and requires little or no learning
tells biologists little about the relative roles of genes and experience in the
development of behavior
animals may fail to perform a genetically controlled behavior if environmental
stimulus is absent
genes do not encode behavior
genes only produce products like enzymes that can affect behavior by setting in
motion a series of gene-environment mechanisms that enable individuals to make
certain behavioral responses
experiments that can carefully control the environment or modify the organisms
genome can help distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on the
development of behavior
oDeprivation Experiments
Isolate a young animal so that it is deprived of all experience relevant
to the behavior under study
If animal which is deprived still exhibits behavior it means that
behavior if genetically coded and vice.versa
oGenetic Experiments
Alter genomes of organism by interbreeding closely related species by
comparing individuals that differ by 1 or 2 genes, or by knocking out
www.notesolution.com
or inserting specific genes to determine how these manipulations
affect their behavior
i.e. selective breeding, interbreeding, and genetic knockouts
it is adaptive for behavior to be under genetic control when it does not have to rely on
external factors and is not as flexible
it is adaptive for behavior to be learned from the environment when it vulnerable to
mistakes/incorrect info and if it is flexible
oGenetic Control
Generations do not overlap and offspring cant learn behavior from
parents
Mistakes=costly and dangerous i.e. mating w/wrong species, avoiding
predators, etc
Still not hardwired and some behaviors ae still expressed only in
certain conditions
Releaser: an object, event, or condition required to stimulate a
behavior
Response to a releaser can depend on motivational state of the animal
as well
oEnvironmental control(learned)
When environment is varied/changes
Learned behaviors in environments still have a genetically determined
components
i.e. Imprinting: animal learns a set of stimuli during a CRITICAL
PERIOD i.e. recognition of parents
Critical period: specific time in an animals development
Requires only a bare exposure, but its effects are strong and can last a
long time
Critical period of imprinting may be determined by a brief
developmental/hormonal state
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 53: Behavior and Behavioral Ecology 53.1 What questions do biologists ask about ecology: Ethology: study of animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective Interactions related to inherited mechanisms and experience Proximate=mechanisms=how Ultimate=causes=why 53.2 How do genes and environment interact to shape behavior: the observation that a given behavior is stereotypic and requires little or no learning tells biologists little about the relative roles of genes and experience in the development of behavior animals may fail to perform a genetically controlled behavior if environmental stimulus is absent genes do not encode behavior genes only produce products like enzymes that can affect behavior by setting in motion a series of gene-environment mechanisms that enable individuals to make certain behavioral responses experiments that can carefully control the environment or modify the organisms genome can help distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on the development of behavior o Deprivation Experiments Isolate a young animal so that it is deprived of all experience relevant to the behavior under study If animal which is deprived still exhibits behavior it means that behavior if genetically coded and vice.versa o Genetic Experiments Alter genomes of organism by interbreeding closely related species by comparing individuals that differ by 1 or 2 genes, or by knocking out www.notesolution.com
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