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BIOA01H3 Final: Biology All Units Study Notes

36 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Karolyn Keir

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Bio All Units Study Notes Review Atom: the smallest whole unit of matter compose of subatomic particles protons and neutrons located in the nucleus, electrons located in energy shells surrounding the nucleus Element: pure substance composed of all of the same type of atom eg. O2 Compound: made up of 2 or more atoms of different elements bonded together in a fixed ratio pure substances because they have the same type of particles eg. H2O form when atoms transfer electrons or share electron pairs Molecule: formed when atoms join together could be either an element or a compound Symbiosis: a situation in which two organisms live in close contact and at least one benefits Mutualism: a situation in which two organisms live in close contact and both benefit Parasitism: a situation in which one organism lives in or on another organism and feeds on that organism (eg. Lice) Commensalism: a situation in which two organisms live in close contact; one benefits and the other is not affected (eg. Ivy growing on tree trunk) Invasive species: species introduced by humans into new environments with unforeseen consequences Monoculture: crops grown in large fields containing a single kind of plant Climate change: large quantities of greenhouse gases produced and emitted that trap thermal energy in the atmosphere Extirpation: habitat loss and pollution which can lead to the loss of a species from a particular region isolated habitat loss Sustainability: how ecosystems support organisms, remain diverse and productive now, without compromising future generations use helps an ecosystem to be more resistant to change more feeding relationships, more niches filled, more nutrient cycling Cytoplasm: jelly like fluid inside cells surrounds organelles and contains a soup of important chemicals needed for cell processes Vacuole: membrane sacks store food and water (and in plants, maintain cell shape) Lysosome: vacuole with digestive enzymes breaks down food and involved in apoptosis (controlled cell death) 1
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