BGYB10&B11 Midterm 1 Study Guide

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5 Dec 2010
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BGY10 t Midterm 1
Lecture #1: Introduction t Chapter 1
- cells = unit of life
- about 10-100 million different kinds of organisms t each have many different types of cells
o adult human body has about 60 trillion cells and 200 different kinds of cells
- all cells are molecules that carry out chemical activity
- 1665: Z}๎€๎€ž๎‚Œ๎‚š๎€ƒ,}}l๎€ž[๎‚๎€ƒ(]๎‚Œ๎‚๎‚š๎€ƒร€]๎€žร๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒ๎€๎€žoo๎‚๎€ƒร๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€ž๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒ๎‚‰}๎‚Œ๎€ž-like compartments = cork cells from oak
bark
- 1665-รญรฒรณรฑW๎€ƒ๎€„v๎‚š}v๎€ƒร€๎€‚v๎€ƒ>๎€ž๎€žยตร๎€žvZ}๎€žl๎€ƒ(]๎‚Œ๎‚๎‚š๎€ƒร€]๎€žร๎€ž๎€š๎€ƒ๎‚]vPo๎€ž๎€ƒ๎€๎€žoo๎‚๎€ƒZanimalcules[๎€ƒ]v๎€ƒ๎‚‰}v๎€š๎€ƒร๎€‚๎‚š๎€ž๎‚Œ
- Cell Theory:
o all organisms composed of one or more cells
o cells = structural unit of life for all organisms
o cells come from pre-existing cells
- cells = structural compartments, separate external environment from internal, macromolecules
perform unique functions in cells
o cells are highly complex and organized
o cells possess genetic program and means to use it (e.g. transcription, translation
Zu๎€‚๎€Z]v๎€ž๎‚Œร‡[๎€ƒt genes to proteins)
o cells are capable of reproducing more of themselves (e.g. mitosis, meiosis)
o cells acquire and utilize energy to develop/maintain complexity (e.g. photosynthesis,
cellular respiration t sun to carbs to ATP)
o cells carry out a variety of chemical rxns (e.g. enzymes t use/produce ATP)
o cells engage in many mechanical activities (e.g. intracellular transport,
assembly/dismantling cell components, cell movement)
o cells respond to stimuli (e.g. w/ surface receptions t proteins)
o cells can self-regulate (e.g. DNA repair, immune cells)
o cells evolve (beneficial genetic mutation, cell changes kept, retained in future)
** review cell structure t pictures in textbook
- prokaryotes lack membrane-enclosed organelles (DNA but no nucleus), over 3 billion years old,
genetic material loosely organized in nucleoid regions in cytoplasm, have plasma membrane and
ribosomes, cell wall gives support
o ๎‚๎‚š๎‚Œยต๎€๎‚šยต๎‚Œ๎€‚ooร‡๎€ƒZ๎‚]u๎‚‰o๎€ž[U๎€ƒu๎€ž๎‚š๎€‚๎€}o]๎€๎€‚ooร‡๎€ƒ๎€š]ร€๎€ž๎‚Œ๎‚๎€ž๎€ƒt includes bacteria, cyanobacteria,
archaebacteria
o cyanobacteria = blue-green algae: aerobic photosynthetic prokaryotes, responsible for
oxygen-based life on earth, most morphologically diverse group of bacteria
- eukaryotes have membrane-enclosed organelles, over 1.5 billion years old (first were
unicellular), have internal cytoskeleton for support
o organelles: nucleus, ER, GA, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuoles, lysosomes)
o structurally diverse t metabolicaloร‡๎€ƒZ๎‚]u๎‚‰o๎€ž[
o oldest eukaryotes in Kingdom Protista, rest are in Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia
** review table 1.1 in textbook (1, 7, 8 = structural features; 4, 5, 6 = metabolic pathways) and table
1.1 part 2 in textbook
- rRNA tree indicates 3 major groups of organisms:
o 1 of eukaryotes t Eukarya
o 2 of prokaryotes t Bacteria and Archaea
- unicellular organisms must do everything needed to survive (e.g. most protists)
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- multicellular organisms = some protists, plants, fungi, animals
o ๎€š]ร€]๎€š๎€ž๎€š๎€ƒ๎€‚v๎€š๎€ƒ๎€š๎€žo๎€žP๎€‚๎‚š๎€ž๎€š๎€ƒZ๎€šยต๎‚š]๎€ž๎‚li}๎€๎‚[
o u๎€‚vร‡๎€ƒ๎€๎€žoo๎‚l๎€๎€žoo๎€ƒ๎‚šร‡๎‚‰๎€ž๎‚๎€ƒ}๎‚ŒP๎€‚v]๎‚u๎‚๎€ƒ๎‚š}๎€ƒ(ยตv๎€๎‚š]}v๎€ƒ๎€‚๎‚๎€ƒZรZ}o๎€ž[๎€ƒ}๎‚ŒP๎€‚v]๎‚u๎‚
o believed to have descended from colonial eukaryotes (less that 1 billion years ago)
o ๎€žร†Z]๎€]๎‚š๎€ƒZdifferentiation[
- differentiation = specialization t process where relatively unspecialized cell becomes high
๎‚๎‚‰๎€ž๎€]๎€‚o]รŒ๎€ž๎€š๎€ƒ๎€‚v๎€š๎€ƒ๎€žร†๎‚‰๎‚Œ๎€ž๎‚๎‚๎€ž๎€š๎€ƒZ๎€๎€žoo๎€ƒ๎‚๎‚‰๎€ž๎€](]๎€[๎€ƒP๎€žv๎€ž๎‚
o fertilized human egg differentiated into 100s of different cell types
Lecture #2: Chemistry for Cell Biology (pt. 1) t Chapter 2
- 6 elements compose 98% of all living organisms t H, C, S, N, P, O
o ๎€‚๎€}ยต๎‚š๎€ƒรฎรฌ๎€ƒZ๎‚š๎‚Œ๎€‚๎€๎€ž๎€ƒ๎€žo๎€žu๎€žv๎‚š๎‚[๎€ƒ๎€}u๎‚‰}๎‚๎€ž๎€ƒ๎‚Œ๎€žu๎€‚]v]vP๎€ƒรฎ9๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒ}๎‚ŒP๎€‚v]๎‚u๎‚
- covalent bonds = polar, non-polar
- non-๎€}ร€๎€‚o๎€žv๎‚š๎€ƒ๎€}v๎€š๎‚๎€ƒA๎€ƒ]}v]๎€๎€ƒ๎€}v๎€š๎‚U๎€ƒZร‡๎€š๎‚Œ}P๎€žv๎€ƒ๎€}v๎€š๎‚U๎€ƒZร‡๎€š๎‚Œ}๎‚‰Z}๎€]๎€๎€ƒ]v๎‚š๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€‚๎€๎‚š]}v๎‚U๎€ƒร€๎€‚v๎€ƒ๎€š๎€ž๎€ƒt๎€‚๎€‚o[๎‚๎€ƒ
forces
- for a neutral atom, the # p+ = # of e-
- chemical hierarchy of structure: sub-atomic particles t atoms t molecules
- molecules = 2+ atoms linked by chemical bonds resulting from chemical rxns
- atoms w/ incomplete valence shells interact w/ other atoms in order to complete shell
o can share valence e- = covalent bond
o can transfer valence e- = ionic bond
o can influence atoms/molecules by proximity (hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interaction,
ร€๎€‚v๎€ƒ๎€š๎€ž๎€ƒt๎€‚๎€‚o[๎‚๎€ƒ(}๎‚Œ๎€๎€ž๎‚๎ฟ
- type of bond distinguished by strength of bond t determined by amount of energy required to
break bond
- covalent bond = s๎‚š๎‚Œ}vP๎€ƒ๎€}v๎€šU๎€ƒ]u๎‚‰}๎‚Œ๎‚š๎€‚v๎‚š๎€ƒ]v๎€ƒ(}๎‚Œu]vP๎€ƒu}o๎€ž๎€ยตo๎€ž๎‚U๎€ƒ(}๎‚Œu๎€ƒZร]๎‚šZ]v๎€ƒu}o๎€ž๎€ยตo๎€ž๎‚[
o when 2 atoms share 1+ e- to complete outer e- shell = stable
o involves full charges
o gives molecules 3-D structure
o types of covalent bonds based on: number and electronegativity = tendency of atom to
attract e- when it occurs as part of a molecule (EN increased up and right on periodic
table)
- non-polar covalent molecule = equal sharing of e-
o molecules w/out EN atoms and polar bonds
o molecules that have C and H are non-polar (e.g. hydrocarbons)
- polar covalent molecules = unequal sharing of e- t asymmetric distribution
o if nucleus more positively charged on one atoms, will attract e- more
o atoms with becomes relatively EN compared to other atom t presence of partial charges
o biologically important polar molecules have 1+ EN atoms (usually O, N, A, and/or P) t
e.g. water
- non-covalent bonds = weak bonds t when 2 atoms transfer 1+ e- to complete outer e- shell =
stable t or when atoms influence each other thru proximity w/out e- charge t hydrophobic
o may involve full/partial/no charges
o occurs between molecules
o govern interactions between molecules or different parts of large biological molecules t
weaker linkages
o ๎‚šร‡๎‚‰๎€ž๎‚W๎€ƒ]}v]๎€๎€ƒ๎€}v๎€š๎‚U๎€ƒZร‡๎€š๎‚Œ}P๎€žv๎€ƒ๎€}v๎€š๎‚U๎€ƒZร‡๎€š๎‚Œ}๎‚‰Z}๎€]๎€๎€ƒ]v๎‚š๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€‚๎€๎‚š]}v๎‚U๎€ƒร€๎€‚v๎€ƒ๎€š๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€ƒt๎€‚๎€‚o[๎‚๎€ƒ(}๎‚Œ๎€๎€ž๎‚
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- ionic bonds = strong in solids but weak in aqueous solutions
o ionization = involved atom that is so strongly EN that it captures e- from another atom t
atoms/molecules w/ opposite charges that attract each other
o atom gaining e- = anion
o atom losing e- = cation
- hydrogen bonds = partially positive H on one H2O molecules interacts w/ negatively charged O
on second H2O molecule, occurs between polar molecules (e.g. H2O) t hydrophilic
- o๎‚šZ๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€ƒ๎€}v๎€š๎‚๎€ƒA๎€ƒZร‡๎€š๎‚Œ}๎‚‰Z}๎€]๎€U๎€ƒร€๎€‚v๎€ƒ๎€š๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€ƒt๎€‚๎€‚o[๎‚๎€ƒt weak bonds, join molecules together, form
Z๎€๎€ž๎‚šร๎€ž๎€žv๎€ƒu}o๎€ž๎€ยตo๎€ž๎‚[
- different types of bonds combine in forming biological molecules
- hydrophobic reaction = scared of water
o non-๎‚‰}o๎€‚๎‚Œ๎€ƒu}o๎€ž๎€ยตo๎€ž๎‚๎€ƒv}๎‚š๎€ƒ๎€Z๎€‚๎‚ŒP๎€ž๎€š๎€ƒ๎€‚v๎€š๎€ƒ๎€๎€‚v[๎‚š๎€ƒ]v๎‚š๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€‚๎€๎‚š๎€ƒรl๎€ƒ,รฎK
o form aggregates to minimize exposure to polar surroundings
o ๎€š}v[๎‚š๎€ƒ(}๎‚Œu๎€ƒ๎€‚๎€๎‚šยตal connections/bonds
- ร€๎€‚v๎€ƒ๎€š๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€ƒt๎€‚๎€‚o[๎‚๎€ƒ(}๎‚Œ๎€๎€ž๎‚ = as 2 atoms/molecules approach each other, experience weak attractive
forces
o if atoms too close (<4 A), repulsion occurs t e- clouds repel forcing atoms apart
o individual van der Waal forces are very weak but large numbers can be formed between
large macromolecules
o leads to force of attraction between biological molecules
- water = required by all living organisms
o accounts for 45-95% of weight for living organisms
o involved in many chemical rxns in organisms
o polar and capable for forming H bonds *
o unique properties: cohesion, adhesion, moderation of temp, insulation, excellent
solvent
o water dissociates in positive and negative ions
- pH scale used to distinguish acids and bases
o acids = substances that donate H+ ions
o bases = substances that accept H+ ions
- buffers = compounds that react w/ free H+ or OH-, resisting changes in pH
o uses weak acid w/ conjugate base (e.g. carbonic acid-bicarbonate in blood or phosphate
buffers in fluid cells)
- organic molecules = biochemicals
- chemistry of life on earth centers around carbon
o C binds up to 4 other atoms b/c only has 4 valence e-
o versatility makes it possible for diversity of organic molecules
o silicon has similar atomic structure but larger and less versatile
- hydrocarbons = contain only H and C atoms
o form C-containing backbones t linear, branched, or cyclic
o H often replace by function groups
- 7 functional groups involved in biological molecules t determine distinguishing characteristics of
biomolecules (large molecules)
o functional groups can show consistent chemical behavior = can predict molecule
behavior
** know functional groups: hydroxyl = makes alcohols, carboxyl = makes acids, amino, sulfhydryl,
phosphate
o have 1+ EN atoms (N, P, O, S)
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