[BIOB11H3] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (31 pages long!)

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Published on 7 Feb 2017
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BIOB11H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1
An Overview of DNA and Heredity
Brief history of genetics
An overview of the most important milestones and early discoveries on
the nature of the gene:
Today, in 2017, many genomes; the entire DNA content of organisms are
completely sequenced
o This is where bioinformatics and computational genomics come in
Discovery of discrete units of inheritance; Mendel’s pea plants
Most organisms are diploid; contain two copies of each gene
An allele is an alternative form of the same gene
o There are dominant alleles as well as recessive
A genotype is the genetic composition of the organism
Mendel used seven traits to establish the basis of heredity including:
height, seed colour, seed shape, etc.
He used pea plants with complete flowers (containing both male and
female reproductive structures)
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Pollen is released into the air
by anthers (also can get into
your respiratory tract and give
you problems if you are allergic
to pollen ok) and undergoes
meiosis and mitosis
Since the pollen contains
sperm (the gamete that will
participate in fertilization);
carpel may contain many ovules
(containing eggs)
Where many different pollen
grains containing sperm
germinate, the pollen tube
which penetrates the ovary and
the sperm are released and
fertilization takes place;
multiple fertilization events
occur
Pea pods contain about 8-10
seeds (babies)
Phenotypes are observable traits or
morphology of seeds
Punnet squares are used to determine
what the genotype of an organism is
going to be
As the sperm carries one of 2 alleles
as well as the egg, observing the ratio
of R to R, Mendel deduced that two
factors alleles are segregating and one exhibited dominance; since
round peas was observed 3 more times than wrinkled peas
Homozygous: both alleles are identical (e.g. if dominant for example it
would be RR
Heterozygous: the alleles differ (e.g. one being dominant and the other
recessive Rr
Nulls: homozygous recessive one quarter of it e.g. rr; generally
associated with the mutant trait
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Document Summary

An overview of the most important milestones and early discoveries on the nature of the gene: Today, in 2017, many genomes; the entire dna content of organisms are completely sequenced: this is where bioinformatics and computational genomics come in. Discovery of discrete units of inheritance; mendel"s pea plants. Most organisms are diploid; contain two copies of each gene. An allele is an alternative form of the same gene: there are dominant alleles as well as recessive. A genotype is the genetic composition of the organism. Mendel used seven traits to establish the basis of heredity including: height, seed colour, seed shape, etc. He used pea plants with complete flowers (containing both male and female reproductive structures) Pollen is released into the air by anthers (also can get into your respiratory tract and give you problems if you are allergic to pollen ok) and undergoes meiosis and mitosis.

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