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BIOB11H3 Study Guide - Winter 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Protein, Gene, Dna


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB11H3
Professor
Dan Riggs
Study Guide
Midterm

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BIOB11H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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The concept map:
Organizes information, you provide the critical links
Central Dogma of Molecular Genetics
DNA akes ‘NA akes protei:
It is useful to outline the compartments, to suggest that eukaryotic cells have compartments. Nuclear
envelope separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Things have to move in a regulated fashion.
Use terms (vocabulary words?) to connect the items.
Fig 10-1 tells a brief history about genetics. Genetics began with some garden peas that Gregor Mendel
was studying in his monetary garden. Along when people were using microscopes, they got the idea that
there were things inside of cells that eventually became known as chromosomes that existed.
Chromosomes were moved into two new dividing cells. In mitotic cells there were 2 copies of these
chromosomes, known as homologous chromosomes that set the stage called crossing over (genetical
recombination / reciprocal genetic exchange). That is the paternal (father) and maternal (mother)
chromosomes get together and exchange segments within your cells that are undergoing meiosis. You
are going to give rise to genetically distinct sperm in case of a male or eggs in case of a female. They will
dictate how the children will differ from you to a large extent similar to you because they paired some of
your genes. Some fruit flies genecists got involved during the early 1900s. What they show is that you
can actually map the position of genes along the chromosomes based on recombination frequency.
During mid-40s to mid-50s people were asking the question: We know that hereditary exist must be
passed on from one generation to the next but what is responsible for that hereditary? Is it proteins,
lipids, carbohydrates, DNA, RNA, what is it? In 1953 Watson, Creg and co-workers elucidated the
structure of DNA in very dramatic consequences. By 2017 many genomes, that is an entire DNA content
of an organism, hire DNA content of an organism. Many genomes have been sequencing (eg: human
genome). Many information came from large scale sequencing efforts. That spawned to field, some
people refer to bioinformatics/computational genomics. If you have
Most organisms are DIPLOID: Two copies of each chromosomes/genes
The two copies that you have in each gene are typically referred to as alleles of one another
Allele: alternative forms of the same gene (one from mom and one from dad; those are two parental
alleles)
DNA
RNA
Proteins
Transcription
Translation
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The genotype that you possess is the sum of that genetic composition. You have some dominant genes
and some recessive genes. This is referred to as your genotype.
Genotype: genetic composition of the organism
Some traits that Mendel used to establish basis of heredity. Medel didt hae reoiat DNA
technology at his fingertips. This was in mid-1800s and he had very low budget being a monk. In his
spare time, he could make visual observations. He goes out to the garden and he says: Well, I can see
peas are different from one another exhibit variations . Some of the variations that he looked at the
height of the plants, some of them were tall and some were short (dwarf). There a lot of the tall ones
than the short ones. Likewise he looked at the seed color; some of them are yellow and green. The
round peas seem to be dominant over wrinkled in terms of seed shape. Table 10-1
How did Mendel go about formulating these laws that dominant exists and recessive actually exists?
Mendel use plants (peas) with complete flowers (have both male and female reproductive structures).
Pollen is released by the anthers and usually flies around in the air that gets into your respiratory tract
and gives you some problems like allergic reactions. It contains a gamete like the sperm cell that is going
to participate in fertilization. Pollen might be released by any factors and take to another flower. It gets
deposited onto another flower called carpels, may contain many different eggs. Multiple feritilization
events could occur when many different pollen grains containing sperm germinate the pollen tube, that
penetrate the ovary. The sperms are released, fertilization takes place, and little while later, the babies
were born. The babies comes in these pods.
Phenotype= observable traits or morphology of seeds
The plant is allowed to self-fertilize. Punnett square is used to determine what the genotype of the
organism is going to be. The phenotype is going to carry two alleles. Dominant for round and recessive
for wrinkled. When the fertilization happens, you have one that has two dominant alleles for round.
Some are have round with dominant and recessive alleles. Some will be wrinkled with two recessive
alleles. By observing the ratio of R to r. Mendel deduced that two factors (alleles) are segregating and
oe ehiited doiae.
To uderstad Medels las oered later he e talk aout ulear diisio ou eed to ko
some vocabulary words:
Homozygous: both alleles are identical (eg. Dominant)
Usually dominant is equivalent to the wild type that is more prominent in nature because it most easy to
propagate. It is always dominant over recessive so you have more offspring of that particular allele.
Heterozygous: alleles differ (one dominant, one recessive) = Rr
Nulls: homozygous recessive (rr)
1/4 is Nulls. Generally associated with mutant genes.
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