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Midterm

BIOB11H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Wilhelm Wundt, Trichromacy, Cognitive Psychology


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB11H3
Professor
Aarti Ashok
Study Guide
Midterm

Page:
of 18
LECTURE 1
Cognitive Neuroscience: How the brain supports the mind?
Field of cognitive psychology: how does mind work
Field of neuroscience: how does brain work
Term began to be used in late 1970’s ! 1980’s that it became its own due
to new techniques for assessing brain activity in vivo
Timeline
PRE 1800’S Psychology was subfield of Philosophy
How knowledge is acquired: rationalists vs. empiricists
19TH CENTURY: psychology emerged as own discipline (initially in Germany)
Regarding human mind as material, mechanistic, and amenable to
scientific measurement and experimentation
EARLIEST PIONEERS: Weber, Gechner, and von Helmholtz
Investigating relationship between stimulus characteristics and
observed perception
HELMHOLTZ: formulated trichromatic theory of color vision
o Distinction between sensation vs. perception
" Perception – brain’s learned interpretation of sensations
by unconscious inference
" Perception relies on poor data to make conclusions
o We learn from experience to unconsciously infer
characteristics of stimulus; automatic and unconscious.
HOWEVER IS NEEDED.
WILHELM WUNDT [1879]
Assistant to Helmholtz
Narrow perspective as he avoided mental processes
First TRUE Psychologist founded lab in 1879 @ Univ of Leipzig
Rxn. time studies with phenomenological data
NO LONGER RELEVANT; DID TRAIN MANY FROM U.S. AS WELL
WILLIAM JAMES [1890]
‘Armchair’ Psychologist: Thinking, observing, and theorizing about
how mental states relate to one another
Different from others because he considered psychology in a more
modern sense, thought about the whole rich experience of mental
activity (the steam of consciousness) ! A broader perspective
Remains highly influential to this day; including his view of the
mind as an adaptation - FUNCTIONALISM
Musings on nature of will, attention, and emotion
BEHAVIORISM [1910-1950] – WATSON & SKINNER
Psychology in USA
Eschewed inrospection and speculation of internal processes of
mind “BLACK BOX”
Radical associationism derived from classical and operant
conditioning of animals
MAP OUT ALL SITMULUS RESPONSE ASSOCIATIONS THAT
DETERMINE HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Even most complex behaviors defined as conditioned reflexes that
can be 1) CONTROLLED 2) PREDICTED
Study what goes in and what comes out ONLY
CONTENT OF PSYCHOLOGY: BEHAVIOR NOT THOUGHT(GAINING
UNDERSTANDING OF MENTAL EVENTS)
ANIMAL STUDIES
B.F. Skinner: Operant conditioning: reinforcement; animal studies –
varied schedules of reinforcement
GESTALT SCHOOL [1920’s-1930’s]
Germans emigrated to US
Thinking as a whole; perception and problem solving: idea of
insight (think Duncker’s candle task)
Wertheimer, Kohler, and Kofka
END OF BEHAVIORISM [1950’s-1960’s]
Rejection of behaviorism and emergence of cog science and cog
psychology
Fell short in explaining much simple and complex behavior
1959: Chomsky’s critique of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior
o Chomsky reasoned that behaviorism could never explain
structural and generative properties of processes such as
language
Study of information processing in non-human machine: DIGITAL
COMPUTER ANALOGY: machine has inputs and outputs, so does the
brain
o Brain circuitry is the hardware and mental processes are
software; there are processes acting on representations
Coke and the Soda Machine – Coke doesn’t come; we respond more
strongly (i.e. beat on machine, get mad, etc.) even though no
expected Coke ! STRANGE and behaviorism fails to explain
because it predicts that if no coke, would weaken relationship
Also the new information theory
o Input ! input processor ! memory unit ! arithmetic unit !
output
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY METHODS
Donders Subtraction Method (1868)
o DURATION
o Time b/w stimulus presentation and response reflects the sum
of a series of independent successive processing stages
o Assumption is pure insertion ! may not always be valid
o Ex: Stimulus! Mental Response (Perceive), Behavioral
Reponses (Act)
o Specifically, Left light flash! Perceive left light and decide
which button to push ! Push the button
o Important to note that the choice is not the only difference
when changing the tasks, individuals need to also remember
(i.e. red means left and blue, right)
o In other words, a problem with the approach is that the
assumption of “Pure insertion” of a specific process between 2
different tasks is NOT always valid
Sternberg Additive Factor Method (1969)
o ORGANZIATIONAL STRUCTURE OF MENTAL OPERATION
o Time between stimulus presentation and response reflects
sum of series of independent successive processing stages