BIOB34H3 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Protein, Metabolism, Lipid

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12 Oct 2018
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BIOB34H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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BIOB34 LECTURE NOTES
LECTURE #1
-Historically, single-celled
eukaryotes with animal-
like behaviour were called
Protozoans whereas single-
celled eukaryotes with
plant-like behaviour were
called algae. The species
count includes extinct
animals.
-Metazoa is the older
taxonomic name
proto = first animal à
first groups with animal
like behaviour
meta =
later/subsequently à
derived and more
complex animals
-Eventually protozoans were put into the protist kingdom
FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIMALS (Metazoa)
1) Eukaryotic
2) Multicellular
3) Diploid-Dominant
4) Lack Cell Walls
5) Chemoheterotrophic
6) Motile* and Quickly Responsive to External
Stimuli due to Muscle and/or Nervous Tissue
7) Development via Blastula and Gastrula Stage
-All cells making up animals
are eukaryotes
-Multicellular nature means
specialized +
interdependency
-Plants are prominent haploid,
animals’ diploid
-Animals typically use structural proteins to do the fxn of cell walls
-Chemo = oxidation of molecules
-#7 is the defining char. Of animals
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-Blastula = hollow ball of cells (blastocoel is the inside) à those balls will undergo
gastrulation to invaginate the out portion inwards and becomes a mouth
-Adult sponges are sessile, but their offspring are
motile before they become adults
-Sponges are filter feeders, passing water through their
bodies and catching
food from the water as it
moves through their
body, responding to
the stimuli they feel when particles are caught in their
mucus-like internal ‘net’
-Sponges stop filter feeding when the filter systems gets
clogged by big particles, so they stop filter feeding for a
few seconds to a minute (this is how they respond to
stimuli)
-Animals develop from a blastula and a gastrula stage
-humans are
coelomates, round-
worms are pseudo-coelomates,
and flatworms are accelomates
-humans have multicellularity,
true tissues, germ layers, bilateral
symmetry, 3 germ layers, and deuterosome
development
LECTURE #2
METABOLISM
-Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reactions occurring in living cells.
-Exported organic matter = gametes, milk, mucous, hair, etc., but also urea, and others,
-External work = moving the body, or moving objects outside the body, via skeletal
muscle contraction
-Internal work = moving materials within the body, e.g., blood, ions
How does energy flow through animals?
-All animals are chemoheterotrophic by ingesting energy and oxidizing it and this is how
they derive energy from their environment.
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