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Biological Sciences
Course Code
Marc Cadotte
Study Guide

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Critically endangered, mostly fish, and angiosperms
Passenger pigeon
High abundance to extinct
Conservation biology
Integreative discipline applies principle of ecology to conservation of
biodiversity and affects maintenance, loss and restoration of
biodiversity. For ex: stabilization of red-cockaded woodpecker
required cont. from several disciplines (law, polisci, and socio)
ESA (eco soc. of Am)
1915: disagreement about mission: ecologists or conservers?
1917: a wing within ESA was Com of preserv of natural cond.
1946: renamed to ecologists union and took direct action to save
threatened natural areas
1950: renamed to nature conservancy
Collection and interpretation of data without bias based on scientific
Alwyn Gentry
Identified, classified and mapped immense diversity in Central and
South America and witnessed species extinction and deforestation
Threats to biodiversity
Habitat degradation, invasive species and overexploitation
Habitat degradation
reduce quality of habitat for many, but not all species
Habitat fragmentation
Breaking up of continuous habitat into habitat patches in a human
dominated landscape
Habitat loss
Conversion of ecosystem to another use
Invasive species
Non-native, introduced species that sustain growing pop and have
larger effects on communities
Order of chaos
Habitat fragmentation habitat degradation more vulnerable to
invasive species
Species of conservation concern: marine mammals, birds and turtles
U.S. endangered species
Indentifies and protects ciritical habitat
Ex situ
Endangered species and moving them to an off-site conservation to a
wild area or within care of humans. Very expensive and had limited
success in restoring wild populations (SMALL POP)
Fine filter
Genes/populations/ species
Coarse filter
Landscape/ecosystem/habitat : protects many species at once
Core natural areas
Conservation of biod and ecological intregity. Uncut by roads and
trails, not all areas qualify
80% endemic
Buffer zone
Large areas with less stringent controls on land use but are partially
compatible with species’ resource requirmnts
Reserve conf
Largest pop, habitat for species, largest area
Surrogate species
Protecting one species result in protection of another w/ overlapping
habitat req: red-cockaded woodpecker
Flagship species
Charismatic organism people give protection ; giant panda
Umbrella species
Assume protection of habitat will protect other species with similar
habitat req. have large ranges : grizzly bear, specialized habitats (red-
woodpecker) , easy to count (butterflies)
Species comp and diversity across geo locations
South NZ
Dominated by birch trees and small leaves , branch of divaricating

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understory shrubs have a zigzag (20 species)
North NZ
Dominated by emergent conifers, flowering trees, has kauris one of
largest species , and ancient ferns fiddleheads
Regional species pool
All the species in a region (gamma diversity)
Global biogeography
Controlled by geographic area & isolation, evolutionary history
(tropical regions have longer history being temporally stable) global
climate(higher lat, severe climactic conditions such as ice ages
increase extinction rate and hinder speciation) and productivity
(species div higher in tropics->higher produc->larger pop sizes-> lower
extinct rates)
Alfred russel Wallace
Study of species distribution across large spatial scales/ in 1862, he
went to the Malay archipelago, singapore and collected beetles.
Noticed mammamls of philipines were more similar to Africa (5,500
km away) than those of new guinea (750 km).
Wallace’s line
Separation between two faunas. Noticed: earth’s mass can be divided
into 6 geographic regions based on terrestrial animals, gradient of
species diversity with latitude ( diversity greatest in tropics and
decreases towards poles)
Great biotic interchange
NA part of laurentia SA part of gondwana. Came together 3-6 ma.
Movement of species from one continent to another
Evolutionary separation of species due to barrier c.d.
Large flightless birds whose ancestor came from gondwana
Species richness
controlled by
Migration, speciation and extinction. increases with area, decreases
with distance , balance between immigration and extinction
Cradle(birth of species)
Tropics have higher rates of speciation than temp and polar
Museum (preservation
of species)
Tropics have lower extinction rates than temp or polar regions
Species diversity in
High species diversity + low extinction of tropics due to large area,
high pop and stable temp
Regional biogeography
Species diversity increases with area and decreases by distance due to
balance b/w immigration and rates
Species richness increases with increasing larea sampled. Great Britain
has the largest area therefore more species
Species-area curves
S=zA + c Channel Islands (steeper slopes, higher z, greater variation
in species richness) and French mainland
Equilibrium theory of
island biogeography
Number of species on island depends on balance b/w immigration
rates and extinction rates
Simberloff and Wilson
Worked with mangrove islands in florida: island closest to source
recovered species richness within 140 days, island farthest from
source didn’t recover after a year
Study the case study
Ecosystem function
Physical, chemical, and biological processes that contribute to
maintenance of ecosystem: carbon cycling, nutrient cycling,
productivity, stability, decomp
Ecosystem services
Benefits people gain from ecosystems like provisioning(water
filtration), regulating(waste), cultural, supporting, pollution filtration,
food production, wood, pollination, erosion control
1994: David Tilman and
Stability, ability to maintain after disturbance. In Minnesota, plots w/

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John Downing,
Nature “Biodiversity
and stability in
diff number of plant species. As number of species increased, their
ability to resist disturbance was better. MORE SPECIES=BETTER
1994: Shahid Naeem
Nature “Declining
Biodiversity can
Alter the
Performance of
Talks about productivity. Ability to provide living material. Has an
ecotron where you control env. Conditions such as temp, humidity,
light and grow diff mini ecosystems. Number of species determines
how well ecosystem functions . Different heights of plants. Greater %
change in % cover allowed for higher diversity
in ecological
Selection effect
When building a fake ecosystem, you pick any of the species and put
them in there. As you increase number of species in your fake
ecosystem, you have a large chance of selecting a keystone species=
higher ecosystem productivity
Complimentary effects
All plants are growing at same height, competing for same sunray,
same root depth, competes for same soil (monoculture)k. When you
mix different species, there are tall species that use top light and
species growing to diff. root depths partition resources
Functional trait
Feature of organism relates to its function. Determines organisms’
response to pressures, and/or its effects on ecosystem processes . ex,
leaf C:N ratio
Functional diversity
Different functional roles in an ecosystem, combining multiple traits
together into single diversity
Phylogenetic diversity
Evolutionary relatedness of species present in area
Genetic diversity
Heritable variation in populations which is created, enhanced, or
maintained by evolutionary forces
Range size
Extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. Many species occupy
small ranges
EOO ( extent of
Stuff inside polygon
AOO (area of
Sum of occupied grid squares
Range wide occurences
Maxent modelling for predicting distribution of species, habitat data
such as climate and elevation
Maxent modelling provides habitat data such as climate and elevation
Marginal occurences
EOO (extent of occurrence) : area within convex polygon
AOO ( area of occurrence) : sum of occupied grid squares
Habitat distributions
From bathymetrical data to habitat map developed
Why care about range
Many species occupy small ranges
- Rarity: low abundance for small range sizes, risk of extinction,
Why the range margin?
Environmental factor : abiotic ( climate)
Biotic ( competition or hebivory)
Variation in individual or population fitness :
Edge populations may suffer from:
- reduced fitness (not always)
- decreased abundance (not always) . abundant center
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