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BIOC19H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Cell Nucleus, Microsoft Powerpoint, Cytoplasm

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Ian Brown
Study Guide

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BIOC19 Prepared by: Hassan Alibhai
Lecture Notes Semester: Fall 2019
Table of Contents
Lecture Number Topic Page Numbers
1 Principles of Development 2 – 15
2 Interactions of the Nucleus and Cytoplasm 16 – 25
3 Development of red blood cells (Erythropoiesis) 26 – 40
4 Lens Development 41 – 56
5 Role of Hormones in Development 57 – 69
6 Tissue Interactions in Development 70 – 86
Disclaimer / Copyright Notice
All of the content in these notes is the sole copyright of Dr. Ian Brown, the instructor of this
course in Fall 2019.
Unless explicitly mentioned (and likewise cited), all of the text and images are from the
lecture PowerPoint that they are mentioned in.
Although every attempt has been made to cover the course content as extensively as possible, it
may be the case that there are some minor discrepancies due to human error. You are welcome
to report any errors you come across, and they will be fixed in due course.
These notes are a significant study resource, and attempt to reasonably replace lecture
attendance due to their high quality. Although they may cover most lecture materials, no
guarantee is given. You should still attend class, but should you have other commitments,
you’re covered.
I will try my best to post these notes every week, and update them as soon as possible,
before the following lecture. Again, no guarantee is given.
Good luck in Animal Development Biology. You are free to share these notes within reason,
ensuring that appropriate credit is given to the author (leaving both the header and footer intact).
University of Toronto – Scarborough Page ADB-1

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BIOC19 Prepared by: Hassan Alibhai
Lecture Notes Semester: Fall 2019
Lecture 1 Principles of Development
What is Developmental Biology?
The study of the developing animal from the fertilized egg right through to the adult stage
Study of the development of specific tissues (e.g. formation of blood cells)
Can be studied at two levels
1. Morphological Level => how cells and tissue look at a certain time in development
2. Molecular Level => DNA, particular genes turned “on or off”
Course Central Theme
Regulation of gene expression underlies morphological changes
seen in development
Example: The gene HMGA2 is a key gene regulating height in
people. Although its exact mechanism remains unknown, it is
thought to increase cell production.
In reality, many genes work together to achieve a
morphological trait (including, of course, height)
Course Design
1. Introduction of historical sequence of
advances in developmental biology.
2. Definitions of key terminology in
developmental biology and a review of
classical experiments.
3. Examining model systems (development of
the red blood cell, or the eye lens)
a. Morphological sequence of
b. Outline the molecular change
underlying morphological events
c. Description of how changes in one
gene expression underlie and
control the morphological changes
Historical Advances in Developmental Biology
“How did it start and where are we today?”
Phase 1 => Descriptive Studies
Phase 2 => Comparative Studies
Phase 3 => Experimental Embryological Developmental Studies
Phase 4 => Molecular Biology Studies
Phase 5 => Transgenic Plants and Animals
Most of the remainder of this lecture analyzes each of these in detail, in order to answer the
above questions, how did this realm begin and where are we headed?
University of Toronto – Scarborough Page ADB-2

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BIOC19 Prepared by: Hassan Alibhai
Lecture Notes Semester: Fall 2019
Phase 1 => Descriptive Studies
Visual Observations (primitive)
Before the invention of magnification devices (single
lens magnifiers and compound light microscopes), the
main method of investigating was via visual
Example: Chick Development Example: Detailed Anatomical Drawings
Opening a chicken egg “X” days after the
egg is laid
Non-invasive (not intraunterine)
Readily Accessible
Early medical schools
Detailed drawings of organs in human
body – noting how internal organs
change with development and age
Microscopic Observations
Began with the invention of the compound light
microscope, which required
1. Advances in glass making techniques (for lens
development and improvement)
2. Advances in proper specimen preparation
(normal human tissue is transparent, so we must
undergo a process in order to prepare it for
a. Tissue preparation for microscopy
1. Fixation
2. Embedding
3. Sectioning
4. Staining
University of Toronto – Scarborough Page ADB-3
Single Lens Magnifiers
~ 16th Century
light microscope
~ 18th century to
present day.
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