BIOC32H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Dyskinesia, Dorsal Root Of Spinal Nerve, Neuroplasticity

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Published on 23 Sep 2016
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Midterm Review
Lecture 1
1. physiology
a. how the body maintains homeostasis
a.i. homeo
a.i.1. similar
a.ii. stasis
a.ii.1. condition
b. pathology arises when homeostasis fails
b.i. organism in homeostasis undergoes external change and internal change that
results in a loss of homeostasis
b.ii. organism attempts to compensate
b.ii.1. failure to compensate results in pathology
b.ii.2. success results in return to homeostasis
c. understand human physiology by applying an integrated approach from different
systems biology
c.i. organism  genes
2. hypothesis building
a. needs to be testable resulting in empirical data
b. interpretation of data needs to account for
b.i. variability between subjects
b.i.1. sex / race / lifestyle
b.ii. psychological bias
b.ii.1. from patient / subject / experimenter
b.ii.2. placebo effect
b.ii.3. need for double blinded studies
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b.iii. ethical considerations
b.iii.1. potential risk to subjects / patients
Lecture 2
1. action potentials
a. explain animal behavior using anatomical connections and rules of cellular response
a.i. excitation and inhibition of action potentials
2. 1902 membrane theory
a. five considerations
a.i. living cells are composed of an electrolytic interior surrounded by a thin
membrane that is selectively permeable to ions
a.ii. at rest, there is a pre-existing electrical difference of potential across the
membrane
a.iii. cell membrane is selectively permeable to potassium ions at rest
a.iv. intracellular potassium concentration is high
a.v. extracellular potassium concentration is low
3. the chemical gradient
a. formed because of the properties of the plasma membrane
a.i. water and small non-polar molecules diffuse easily
a.ii. large and polar molecules are impermeable
b. chemical gradient (concentration) influences direction of ion movement more than
electrical gradient (charge / valency) FOR POTASSIUM
b.i. i.e. at rest potassium is moving out along concentration gradient when the
electrical gradient wants it to move in
4. electrophysiology
a. voltmeter
a.i. used to measure membrane potential difference of living cells between two
points
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a.ii. difference in charge creates an electrical gradient (potential difference / driving
force; measured in joules) between intracellular and extracellular
compartments
a.ii.1. Eion = the voltage that has to be applied to the inside of the cell
to prevent ion flux
a.ii.1.a. e.g. Eion of sodium is +60mV
a.ii.1.a.i. that means +60mV needs to be applied inside the cell to
prevent sodium influx (since sodium is in greater
concentration outside of the cell)
a.ii.1.b. e.g. Eion of potassium is -90mV
a.ii.1.b.i. this means -90mV needs to be applied inside the cell to
prevent potassium efflux
a.ii.1.c. this only applies to one ion under the Nernst equation
b. differential rheotome
b.i. current slicer
5. resting membrane potential
a. cell at rest has a negative charge (~70 mV)
b. can be between -9 to -100 mV depending on the cell type (RBC / neurons of spinal cord
at the extremes)
c. three main factors that contribute to RMP (resting membrane potential)
c.i. K+ leak channels
c.i.1. efflux of potassium resulting in negative interior
c.ii. Na+/K+ ATPase (electrogenic) pump
c.ii.1. 3 Na+ efflux
c.ii.2. 2 K+ influx
c.ii.3. electrogenic refers to net movement of positive charge out of
the cell (efflux)
c.ii.4. requires ATP  active transport
c.iii. properties of the plasma membrane
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