BIOC32H3 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Neuron, Membrane Potential, Homeostasis

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BIOC32H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Lecture
● Tbnotmandatory
● Focusonlectureoutlines
● Examswillonlycovermaterialinlectures
● Makesureyouunderstandconceptsratherthanmemorize
● Bringcourseoutlinetoclass
● SampleexamMCQquestionsinclass
Midterm
● Allmcq
● Lectures112
Final
● Allmcq
● Cumulative(lec124)
Tutorials
● Eachstudentattends⅛tutorials
● Assignmentlinkedwithtutorial
Physiology:Howthebodymaintains
homeostasis
● Maintainsbalancebetween
compartments
● Tempchange
● Waterlevels
● Bloodpressure
● Glucoselevels
● Wearen’treallyawareofit
becauseourbodyjustregulatesit
Pathologiesarisewhenhomeostasisfails
● Viruses,antibodies
● Insulindependentdiabetes
Howdoweunderstandhumanphysiology?
1. Applyanintegratedapproach
a. Theuseofdifferentmethodstoaddressthequestion=
amultidisciplinaryapproach
b. Spanscellbio,biochem,molecularbio,behavioural
science,etc
2. Requirementforahypothesis
a. Derivedfromthelatinhypothithenal=toassume
i. Ahypothesisneedstobelogicalandinformedbasedontheinformationavailable
ii. Needstobetestable;dependsontechnologiesavailable
iii. “Hewhodoesn’tknowwhathe’slookingforwillnotlayholdofwhathehasfoundwhenhe
getsit”
iv. E.g.studentsaremoresusceptibletoalcoholintoxicationwhenfooddeprived
1. Howtotest?
2. Whichofthefollowingareindependentanddependentvariables?
a. Food=independent
b. Alcohol=dependentvariable(dependentonfoodintake)
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3. Nontestableexample:studentsfeelmoreintoxicatedwhendrinkingonanempty
stomach
a. Nottestable:basedoffafeeling,howdowedefineemptystomach
3. Experimentaldesign,e.g.choiceofthecorrectsystem(i.e.MODEL)

4. Interpretation
a. Variabilitybetweensubjects
i. Sex,lifestyles,race,size,geneticbackground,existingmedicalconditions
b. Psychologicalbias
i. Eitherfrompatient/subjectorexperimenter
ii. Placeboeffect(placebomeaningtoplease)
iii. Needfordoubleblindedstudieswherehumansubjectsareinvolved
c. Ethicalconsiderations
i. Potentialhealthrisktosubjects/patients
● Inscience,the“truth”canchange
○ Whatiswritteninthetextbookisthemostlogicalexplanationbasedonthecurrentavailable
evidence
■ Howcanthemostlogicalexplanationchangefortime?
● Newandbettertechnologies
● E.g.Thalidomide
○ 1954:sedativeandtranquilizerformorningsickness
○ Apprx10kchildrenbornwithmalformations
■ WithdrawnfromtheEuropeanandCanadianmarketsin1961and1962respectively
○ 2004topresent,usedasatherapyforcancer
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