Midterm Study Guide: Chapters 1-5

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ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY LAB t Midterm Notes: Lecture 1-5
Lecture 1: Animal Physiology
- Animal physiology = study to understand how animals work
- ** Knut Schmidt Nielsen **
- Physiologists = study interaction between molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems t understand
structure/function of org
o How parts of org work together so animals can perform activities and respond to environment
o Integrate genome sequences info into functional/evolutionary frame work
o How diff animals use similar building blocks for unique systems and overcome environmental challenges
- Most integrative life sci t based on chemistry, physics, math, molecular bio, eviro bio, ecology, evolutionary bio
- Phys integrates all levels of bio organization from molecules to cells and organ system to org
o Types of phys: cell and molecular, system, organismal, ecological, integrative
- ** see table 1.1 in textbook **
- Physiological diversity in animals results from evolution
- Common phys processes:
o Animal texting = animal experimentation, animal research, in vivo testing t use of non-human animals in
o Human testing = unethical, very regulated t e.g. twin studies conducted by Mengele in Auschwitz
- Animal testing used since prehistoric times t references to it in Greek writing in 2nd/4th BCE
o Aristotle and Erasistratus one of the 1st to perform animal experiments
o 'ovAZ(Z}(À]À]]}v[t physician in 2nd CE, dissected pigs and goats in Rome
- Major figures of physiology = fernal, Vesalius, Schwann, Bernard, cannon, scolander, prosser, Nielsen, Bartholomew,
hachachka and somero
- Model species = org studies by community of researchers
o Has certain features good for experimenting t e.g. mice = transgenic, unusual anatomical features, squid =
large axon/neurotransmission, xenopus = large oocytes/RNA translation, worm = c. elegans development/each
cell known
o Understanding process in model help to show how process works in other species
o Rapid growth in # of species w/ genome decoded
- Mice = best model of inherited human diseases, share 99% genes w/ humans
o Genetically modified mice = model for human diseases
o Most commonly used vertebrate b/c of size, cost, east handling, fast reproduction
- Rats = for physiology, toxicology, and cancer research
o Genetic manipulation harder than mice
o SAGE project 1st transgenic rat in 2009
- Rabbits = used for production of polyclonal antibodies
- Other rodents for animal experiments = guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils
- Non-human primates/NHPs: macaques, rhesus monkeys, cynomolgus monkeys, squirrel monkeys, spider monkeys, owl
monkeys, marmosets, baboons, chimps
o Used for toxicology t AIDS, hepatitis, neurology, behavior, cognition, reproduction, genetics,
o 1st transgenic primate rhesus macaque in 2001
o Helps polio vaccine development
o Help understand development of deep brain stimulation for Wl]v}v[ disease
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- Non-mammal models:
o Fish: zebra fish = translucent in embryonic stage
o African clawed frog = large oocytes t RNA translation
o C. elegans = development t each cell known
o Drosophila = genetic manipulation
o Crayfish = synaptical plasticity, phasic and tonic differentiation
o Sea slug = learning and memory
o armadillos
- experiment has to 1st be approved by Institutional Board of Ethics
- ïZ[APµ](}v]uoZW
o Reduction = researchers get info from fewer animals or more info from same # of animals t experiment not
unnecessarily duplicative
o Replacement = prefer non-animal methods if possible, so other methods must be considered and animals only
used when necessary
o Refinement = minimize potential pain, suffering, distress, and enhance animal welfare t pain relief provided
unless it interferes with the study and testing causes as little suffering to animal as possible
- 1st animal protection law passed in British parliament t 1822
- Cruelty to Animal Act 1876 = 1st law to regulate animal testing
o Legislation promoted by Darwin t À]À]]}vZ]](]o(}o]vÀ]P]}v}vZÇ]}o}PÇVµv}(}
- Laboratory Animal Welfare Act 1966
- v]uo[^]v](]W}µíõ86
- Guide for Care and Use of Lab Animals published by National Academy of Sciences in US t ZvÇ}µv
- Experimentation on a Bird in the Air Pump
o Otto von Guericke = air pump inventor in 1650 t place animal in glass globe attached to hand pump, pump air
o 1st English air pump made for Robert Boyle 1758 t Boyle knew animals need air to live
o Lavoisier in 1780s discovered oxygen in air is what supports life t drew analogy between cell respiration and
simple combustion
- Henry Bergh founded American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ASPCA in US in 1860s
- American Anti-vivisection Society AAVS = organization founded in 1883
- Animal Welfare and Rights Organizations = PETA t Ppl for Ethical Treatment of Animals, and BUAV t British Union for
Abolition of Vivisection
- Animal testing controversies since 17th CE
- 1655, EdmuvK[DAadvocate of Galenic physiology t Zu]o}µ}(À]À]]}vo}Ç]vµvvµo
- Animal phys can be affect by pain in vivisection so results unreliable
- 17th ]v]uov[(o]vl}(ol}(}v]}µvss
- Unclear if invertebrates feel pain
- Euthanizing lab animals = induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress:
o Inhale gas (e.g. CO2) by being placed in a chamber/face mask, with/without prior sedation/anesthesia.
o Sedatives/anesthetics (e.g. barbiturates) given intravenously/inhalant.
o Amphibians and fish immersed in water containing anesthetic (e.g. tricaine)
o Physical methods with/without sedation/anesthesia depend on method
o Decapitation/beheading for small rodents/rabbits.
o Cervical dislocation (breaking neck/spine) for birds, mice, immature rats, rabbits
o Maceration (grinding into small pieces) on 1 day old chicks
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o High-intensity microwave irradiation of brain can preserve brain tissue and induce death in less than 1 second
t only used on rodents
o Captive bolts t causes death by a brain concussion for dogs, ruminants, horses, pigs, rabbits
o Gunshot when v]vP]À}ov[µ
o Some physical methods only acceptable after animal unconscious.
o Electrocution for cattle, sheep, swine, foxes, mink after unconscious by a prior electrical stimulation
o Pithing = inserting tool into the base of brain on animals already unconscious
o Slow/rapid freezing, or air embolism with prior anesthesia to induce unconsciousness
- Tom Regan = said animals have moral rights but kill animals permissible if saving a human
- Bernard Rollin = said animal pain outweighs benefit to humans
- ** Peter Singers ** ?
- Netherlands and New Zealand outlawed invasive experiments on certain classes on non-humans (e.g. primates, great
- Brown Dog Affair in 1900s made division between pro/anti-animal testing more public
- US gov passed Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act
- h<P}À}((v}(Z]v]u]]}v}(}v}vv]}vÁlv]uoZ}Pv]Ì]}v[}^]}µKPnized
Crime and Police Act 2005
- Medical schools/agencies in Canada, Japan, South Korea built cenotaphs for killed animals
- Japan = annual memorial service for sacrificed animals
- Animal monument in Keio Uni
- Claude Bernard = prince of vivisections and father of phys in favor of animal testing
o Established animal experiments as part of standard scientific method
o Maria Francoise Martin, wide, founded 1st anti-vivisection society in France 1883
- Embryogenesis and development bio = understand how orgs naturally development, what can go wrong t mutants
created by adding transposons into genomes or specific genes deleted by gene targeting
o Basic controls of development (e.g. homebox genes) have similar function in diff orgs
- Behavioral experiments = understand how orgs detect/interact w/ others and environment t fruit flies, worms, mice,
- Brain function = memory and social behavior t rats, birds
- Evolution = how variations in where/how org lives cause adaptation in phys/morphology
- Genetics = mice, flies, fish, worms inbred to make strains w/ defined characteristics of known genetic background
- 1880s, Pasteur showed germ theory of medicine by inducing anthrax in sheep
- 1890s, Pavlov showed classical conditioning in dogs
- 1922, insulin isolated from dogs t used to treat diabetes
- Nov 3, 1957, Russian dog Laika 1st animal to orbit earth
- 1970s, antibiotic treatment/vaccine for leprosy created using armadillos
- 1974, 1st transgenic mammal t Rudolf Jaenisch integrated DNA from SV40 virus of mice
- 1996, sheep Dooly = 1st mammal to be clones from adult cell at Roslin Institute in Scotland
o Tissue taken from 1 sheep thru nuclear transfer to unfertilized oocyte t lamb survived after 277 attempts and
lived for 6 years, gave birth, euthanized in 2003 b/c contracted lung disease
- Veterinary medicine = rely on phys research to improve health of agricultural/house animals
- Human medicine = understand human diseases and use animals to understand human condition
- Metabolic tests, pharmacokinetics = how drugs absorbed, metabolized, excreted from body
- Toxicology tests = acute toxicity t using dose until signs of toxicity apparent
- Efficacy study = test if experimental drug works by inducing appropriate illness in animals then drug administered in
double-blind controlled trial
- Cosmetic testing = controversial, general toxicity, irritation to eyes/skin t banned in Netherlands, Belgium, UK
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