BIOC32H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Electrophysiology, Nernst Equation, Neurotropic Virus

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Published on 30 Sep 2019
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BIOC32 Prepared by: Hassan Alibhai
Lecture Notes Semester: Fall 2019
Lecture # Topic # Topic Name Page Numbers Associated Quiz
11 Organization of the Nervous System 2 – 7 Week 1
21 Organization of the Nervous System 8 – 12
31 Organization of the Nervous System 13 – 16 Week 2
41 Organization of the Nervous System 17 – 22
5 A 1 Organization of the Nervous System 23 – 25 Week 3
5B 2 The Electrophysiology of Neurons 26 – 28 Week 3
62 The Electrophysiology of Neurons 29 – 34 Week 4
72 The Electrophysiology of Neurons 35 – 40
82 The Electrophysiology of Neurons 41 – 45 Week 5
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Disclaimer: All images and information provided in this document is the sole copyright of Dr. Jason
Brown, the instructor of this course in Fall 2019. Although this document has been made in an attempt
to cover all of the course content, there may be a few minor discrepancies based on human error.
Any text in red is only provided as context (not directly stated by Dr. Brown, not on tests)
University of Toronto – Scarborough Page HP-1
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BIOC32 Prepared by: Hassan Alibhai
Lecture Notes Semester: Fall 2019
Lecture 1 Topic 1 Organization of the Nervous System
Function of the Nervous System
The primary function of the nervous system is
communication
Communication with the internal environment =>
maintaining homeostasis
Communicating with the external environment =>
sensory neurons for vision, audition, etc
The endocrine system is also a major communication
system, and a comparison of the two is on the next
slide.
Key role of the nervous system: necessary for
maintaining homeostasis => the internal consistency”
that allows for our body to perform vital functions
Body conditions (temperature, pH) kept relatively
constant to ensure optimal functionality
Nervous System vs Endocrine System
The other major system that is responsible for communication is the endocrine system, and so
what follows is a compare and contrast of the two in a number of important categories.
Nervous System Endocrine System
Nature of Message Electrochemical
Neurotransmitters (Chemical)
Electrical conduction from
one end of the axon to another
Chemical
Hormones
Transmission Nerves
Neuron-to-Neuron
or Neuron-to-Junction
Blood
Hormones are made by the
endocrine gland, into bloodstream
Specificity (Effect) Highly Specific (Localized Effect)
Neurons can go right to the
muscle or other neuron
Less Specific (Widespread Effect)
Every cell exposed to hormones
(circulatory system is everywhere)
Speed of Action Fast (milliseconds)
Control of relatively
instantaneous actions and
reactions (turning your head)
Slow (hours to day)
Endocrine hormones are released
relatively slowly
Duration of Action Short
“Shorter” actions and
reactions, like turning head
Long
The body can take a while to
respond to the hormone
University of Toronto – Scarborough Page HP-2
An example of homeostasis,
controlled by the nervous system,
in this case, body temperature is
kept constant using a negative
feedback loop.
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BIOC32 Prepared by: Hassan Alibhai
Lecture Notes Semester: Fall 2019
Cell Types
Neurons execute the basic function of the
nervous system
Neuroglial (or just “glial” cells) support the
function in many ways
Old understanding: glial <=> glue, glial
cells hold the nervous system together
New understanding: there are many
different types of glial cells, and they
play important regulatory roles in the
nervous system
Analogy:
Professor => Neuron
TA => Neuroglial Cells (not just the
glue, have many other roles like
marking assignments, etc)
Observations from the light micrograph
1. There are many more neuroglial cells (neuroglia) as opposed to neurons, in the image
just one neuron is visible compared dozens of glial cells.
1. In the human brain, there are 5- to 50-fold more neuroglia than neurons.
2. Neurons are much larger than neuoglia, and occupy a much larger volume
3. When we look at overall volume, neurons and neuroglia each occupy about half of
the brain’s volume, since although each neuron is larger than each neuroglial cell, the
sheer number of neuroglia compensates for this
University of Toronto – Scarborough Page HP-3
The original image, as posted in the lecture slides, is also included here for reference purposes.
A light micrograph of a neuron. Note that there
are many glial cells (compared to just the one
neuron), only their nuclei are visible above.
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