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Midterm

BIOC33H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Extracellular Fluid, Sodium-Potassium Alloy, Ectopic Pacemaker


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC33H3
Professor
all
Study Guide
Midterm

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exam notes - cardiovascular system
cardiovascular physiology overview
1. electrical activity of the heart
a. conduction through heart via
a.i. endogenous pacemaker
a.ii. contractile cells
2. ECG  electrocardiogram
a. cardiac cycle
b. how to use ECG to diagnose a heart
3. electrical axis of heart
a. direction of electrical activity flow in the heart
b. diagnostic tool to diagnose heart
b.i. deviations to left or right signal abnormalities
4. cardiac cycle
a. pressure and volume changes
b. opening and closing of valves
c. contraction of atria and ventricles
5. regulation of cardiac output
a. amount of blood the heart puts out per unit time
b. regulation of blood flow
c. heart failure and blood pressure
cardiac output
1. function of heart rate and stroke volume
a. heart rate
a.i. how fast the heart is beating
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b. stroke volume
b.i. volume of blood pumped per beat
2. calculated
a. CO = HR x SV
function of cardiovascular systems
1. prevent blood pressure from falling too low  important to keep blood flow going to organs that
are sensitive to low oxygen levels
a. high blood pressure will kill (in years)
b. low blood pressure will kill (in minutes)
heart anatomy
2. human heart
a. four chambered with left side and right side
b. atria and ventricle located on either side
c. atria and ventricles separated by septa
c.i. interatrial septum
c.i.1. separates atrial
c.ii. interventricular septum
c.ii.1. separates ventricles
3. right side
a. blood comes back from circulation via the vena cava  into the right atria
a.i. inferior vena cava coming from lower body
a.ii. superior vena cava coming from upper body
b. blood flows from right atria through right AV valve (tricuspid valve) into the right
ventricle
c. right ventricle contracts and pumps blood through pulmonary arteries up to lungs
d. the pulmonary circuit is a low pressure, low resistance circuit
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4. left side
a. oxygenated blood from lungs returns to the heart via pulmonary veins
b. enters the left atria  left ventricle  aorta  systemic circulation
b.i. left ventricle pumps blood to systemic circulation
c. systemic circulation is a high pressure, high resistance circuit
c.i. the muscles of the left ventricles are substantially greater to pump blood
through this circuit
blood flow
1. deoxygenated blood from systemic circulation  right heart  pulmonary arteries  lungs
2. oxygenated blood from pulmonary circulation  pulmonary veins left heart  aorta  systemic
circulation
3. terminology  note there is no distinction between oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in
definition of artery and veins
a. artery
a.i. carries blood away from heart
b. vein
b.i. carries blood towards the heart
conduction system of the heart
1. sinoatrial (SA) node
a. where electrical activity that causes heart to polarize and contract is generated
2. internodal pathways
a. pathways which electrical activity spreads throughout in the atria
3. waves of depolarization cause the heart to contract as it spreads through the atria to ventricle
via the atrioventricular (AV) node
4. from the AV node, the waves of depolarization travel through an AV bundle (bundle of his)
which divides into two branch bundles (left and right) which go through the interventricular
septum
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