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Study guide 2

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Stephen Reid

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Vertebrae: series of irregular bones separated by fibrocartilaginous tissue
Muscles that move the vertebral coloumn:
Functions to maintain posture and help an individual stand erect
When teh left and right erector muscles contract, the vertebral column extends
When only one side contract, it flexs to that side
Organized into 3 groups: common tendinous insertion: posterior part of iliac creat, posterior
sacrum and spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae
1)iliocostalis:most lateral, 3 parts; cervical, thoracic and lumbar
2)longissimus group: medial to the iliocostalis, inserts on the transverse processes of the
vertebrae, composed of capitis, thoracic and cervical
3)spinalis group- most medially placed, inserts on the spinous processes of the lumbar
vertebrae, composed of cervical and thoracic parts
External intercostals involved in inhalation
-extend inferomedially from superior rib to adjacent inferior rib
-elevate the ribs through inhalation, hence increase the thoracic cavity
~contraction of the external intercostals
Internals- depress the ribs normal exhalation takes no muscular effort
Muscle fibers converge toward the central tendon, insertion point for all
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