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Midterm

BIOC33H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ground Substance, Mediastinum, Intermediate Mesoderm


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC33H3
Professor
Connie Soros
Study Guide
Midterm

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Define
Lecture 1
Anatomy (4)
Physiology (2)
Microscopic Anatomy
o Cytology + histology
o Histology
Macroscopic Anatomy
o Surface anatomy, regional anatomy, systemic anatomy
Developmental Anatomy, Embryology, Comparative anatomy
Levels of organization (6) + their descriptions
o Which 4 elements (out of how many overall) make up 99% of the
body?
o Major classes of compounds (5)
o Components of the digestive system (6)
o How many organ systems? List them + major functions
Anatomical position
o Supine
o Prone
Abdominopelvic regions and quadrants= specialized regional terms
o Name quadrants (4) + organs
o Name regions (9)
Sectional Anatomy
o 4 cuts
o Body Cavities + membranes
Tissues
o Over how many cells in the body?
75 trillion
o 4 tissue categories
o 4 functions of epithelial cells + 3 specializations + 4 types (where they
are found and functions)
Development of Epithelia
o All epithelia begin as simple epithelia
o Cells differentiate into functional epithelial cells + gland cells that may
have endocrine or exocrine functions
o Complex glands begin to form as epithelial cells grow into underlying
tissue
o In the formation of an exocrine gland, cells connecting to secretory
cells to the surface= duct that carries secretions of the gland cells to
the epithelial surface- formation of endocrine glands, connecting
cells disappear and the gland cells secrete into blood vessels or into
the surrounding tissue fluid

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Lecture 2
2 types of fluid
Intercellular attachment (3)
o Molecules in Tight Junction
o Molecules in Anchoring Junctions
CAMS bind to each other and other extracellular material
Proteoglycans link opposing membranes and form a junction
with the cytoskeleton within the adjoining cells
Internal surface of the plasma membrane (inside the cell)=
thickened protein plaque=dense area= intermediate filaments
of cystoskeleton penertrate the plaque to extend throughout
the cell for support and strength
Zone Adherens=adhesion belt= sheet-like anchoring
junction that stabilizes non-epithelial cells- form of anchoring
junction that encircles the cell
Macula adherens (desmosomes)= provides small localized
spot-like anchoring junction that stabilizes adjacent epidermal
cells (like button/snap, which each cell contributing half the
snap)
o Molecules in Communication Junctions
Where are they common?
Integumentary system components (6)
Types of tissue in IS (2)
Functions of IS (7)
Divisions of the IS :
o Skin (cutaneous membrane)= Epidermis and dermis
o Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)= deep to dermis
o Accessory structures= hair, nails, exocrine glands
o Hypodermis(subcutaneous) Dermis (cutaneous) reticular layer
(D) papillary layer (D) Stratum Basale (ED) Stratum spinosum
(ED) Stratum granulosum (ED) Stratum lucidum (ED) Stratum
Corneum (ED)
Stratum Basale (2 types of cells located here)
o 15-30 days from here to top layer
o forms epidermial ridges dermal papillae extend into dermis (4th
month of fetal development) dermatoglyphics
Stratum spinosum
o Keratinocytes= macular adherens/desmosomes + tonofibrils (bundles
of protein filaments)
o Langerhans cells
Stratum granulosum
o Last layer with nucleated cells/keratinocytes
o Keratinization starts here
o 2 proteins produced by keratinocytes (protein functions?)
Stratum lucidum

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Stratum corneum
o Thickened plasmalemmae
o Keratinized/cornified/no organelles and nucleus’/relatively dry and
water resistant= unsuitable for microorganisms
Name superficial layer of dermis + its components (3)
Name deep layer of dermis + its components (4)
Subcutaneous layer (aka....)= not technically part of the integument but helps
STABILIZE it 2 components _____needles, ________injections
ACCESSORY STRUCTURES (3)
o Structure of hair follicles
o Types of hair (3)
o Functions of hair (8)
o Hair color cause, age, influenced by (3)
o Hair growth phases (4)
o Glands
Glandular functions (3)
Types of exocrine glands (2)
Sebaceous glands
Sweat glands apocrine glands (3 types) + merocrine glands
APOCRINE SWEAT GLANDS= viscous secretion of complex
composition/ ODOUROUS fluid+ strongly influenced by
HORMONES + possible function in communication + LIMITED
DISTRIBUTION IN AXILLAE, GROIN + NIPPLES
MEROCRINE SWEAT GLANDS= thin secretion of mostly water
(sensible perspiration/sweat)+ controlled by nervous system
+ALL OVER BODY WITH HIGH CONC. IN PALMS AND FEET
MEROCRINE GLANDS/ECCRINE GLANDS location + function
(2)
o Nails
Function (1)
Structure (5)
Repairing Injuries to the skin
o Step 1: bleeding occurs if dermis is penetrated
o Step 2: blod clot/scab forms at surface to restore integrity (insoluble
network of fibrin protein from blood proteins during clotting
clots color=due to trapped red blood cells
cells of stratum basale undergo rapid divisions and begin to
migrate along edges of wound + macrophages patrol damaged
area of dermis and phagocytize pathogens and debris
fibroblasts + mesenchymal cells divide rapidly + capillaries
follow fibroblast to inc. circulation
combination of blood clot, fibroblasts, extensive capillary
network GRANULATION TISSUE
o Step 3: Fibroblast activity leads to appearance of collagen fibers and
typical ground substance
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