Study Guides (256,443)
CA (124,652)
UTSC (8,077)
BIOC34H3 (46)

study guide

8 Pages
93 Views

Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC34H3
Professor
Stephen Reid

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Lecture 22 Study Notes
Slide 1
When helicobacter pylori bacteria have eaten through the phospholipid bilayer,
pepsin and HCl could sip through and stimulate mast cells
oMast cells: cells that release histamine
Histamine then performs positive feedback to stimulate parietal cells
to release more HCl
Dangerous cycle that could cause severe gastric ulcers
Slide 2
The small intestine has 3 distinct regions
oDuodenum: starting section in which digestive enzymes and bile are
secreted into
Most absorption occurs here
Enzymes and bile are dumped here in order to be neutralized, which
allows enzymes and stuff to work
Most absorption occurs in first 20% of small intestine
oJejunum
oIleum: leads into the large intestine
Illeocelcal sphincter divides ileum from large intestine
Slide 3
There is a large surface area for absorption in the small intestine
oVilli, that also contain microvilli, face the intestinal lumen and aid in
absorption
oCrypt of Lieberkhun: release HCO3 into small intestine to make the
environment alkaline to allow enzymes to work
Slide 4
www.notesolution.com
The liver constantly synthesizes bile and either stores it in the gall bladder, or
releases it directly into the duodenum via a bile duct
The pancreas, on the other hand, is adjacent to the duodenum and releases HCO3
and digestive enzymes into the duodenum
Slide 5
The large intestine also is divided into various segments
oIlleocelcal sphincter controls entry from the ileum (small) into the
cecum(large)
oCecumascending colontransverse colon descending colon
sigmoid colon
oInvolved mainly in water/ion absorption
Slide 6
Appendix (bottom of Cecum)
oHas no known function to humans
Appendicitis
oBlockage and inflammation of the appendix
oProfessor had this
oIntense pain on the right lower abdominal
Slide 7
Fecalith removal
oCompacted faeces backing up the intestines
oCaused by consuming too little fibre
Slide 8
Diverticulosis and Diverticulisis
oAgain caused by low fibre diet
oPrimarily affects the sigmoidal colon
www.notesolution.com
oDiverticulosis
Pouches (bulging outwards) formed along the sigmoid colon due to
weakening of the muscles
oDiverticulisis
Occurs when infection or inflation of the diverticulosis pouches occurs
E.g. faeces getting trapped in there
Intense pain on left abdominal side
Slide 9
Colonoscopy: goes up through the anus
Slide 10
Pancreas
oAs mentioned before, releases HCO3 and enzymes into the duodenum
oThe point at which the pancreatic duct and bile duct from the liver meet is
called the Ampulla of Vater
Sphincter of Odi controls entry into duodenum at ampulla of vater
Slide 11
Pancreas has endocrine and exocrine functions
oEndocrine:
Carried out by Islet of Langerhans cells
Release insulin, glucagon, and somatosin (Touched on later)
oExocrine:
Acinar cells release inactive enzymes
Proteolytic zymogens release inactive proteins
Pancrease secretes most protein relative to weight than any other
organ
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Lecture 22 Study Notes Slide 1 When helicobacter pylori bacteria have eaten through the phospholipid bilayer, pepsin and HCl could sip through and stimulate mast cells o Mast cells: cells that release histamine Histamine then performs positive feedback to stimulate parietal cells to release more HCl Dangerous cycle that could cause severe gastric ulcers Slide 2 The small intestine has 3 distinct regions o Duodenum: starting section in which digestive enzymes and bile are secreted into Most absorption occurs here Enzymes and bile are dumped here in order to be neutralized, which allows enzymes and stuff to work Most absorption occurs in first 20% of small intestine o Jejunum o Ileum: leads into the large intestine Illeocelcal sphincter divides ileum from large intestine Slide 3 There is a large surface area for absorption in the small intestine o Villi, that also contain microvilli, face the intestinal lumen and aid in absorption o Crypt of Lieberkhun: release HCO3 into small intestine to make the environment alkaline to allow enzymes to work Slide 4 www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit