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Final

Lec 1 Study Notes

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC34H3
Professor
Stephen Reid

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Lecture 1 Study Notes
CO = HR x SV
SV = Stroke volume the amount of blood pumped by beat
CO = Cardiac output the amount of blood pumped per minute
BP = CO x PR or BP = (HR x SV) x PR
BP = Blood pressure. The main aim is to prevent low blood pressure, which kills very
quickly, as opposed to high blood pressure, which takes years
PR = Peripheral resistance: resistance to blood flow within circulation that happens
primarily in arteries and arterioles
Flow of blood from right side of heart (blue: de-oxygenated blood) (red: oxygenated blood):
Superior/inferior vena cava Right Atrium Tricuspid valve Right Ventricle 
Pulmonary Valve Pulmonary Arteries Lungs Pulmonary Veins Left
Atrium Bicuspid Valve Left Ventricle Aortic/Semilunar Valve Aorta 
Systematic circulation
Heart is 4 chambered
Conduction System of the heart
Sinoatrial Node (SA node) : primary pacemaker - group of cells with no resting
potential, hence they depolarize spontaneously. This is the beginning of the
conduction pathway
Internodal Pathways: transmit the conduction from SA node throughout left and
right atria
Atrioventricular Node (AV node): transmits conduction to the ventricles
AV bundle/Bundle of HIS: transmit conduction down apex of heart to Right and
Left Branch Bundles
Branch Bundles: transmit conduction to either right ventricle Purkinje fibres or
left ventricle Purkinje fibres
Purkinje Fibres: cause contraction of ventricles
Fill in the pathway: slide 12 -
www.notesolution.com
Cardiac muscle cells are electrically connected via gap junctions, hence no
neurotransmission is needed
They are held together by desmosomes:
Desmosomes resist stretching of the heart muscles
oHypertrophy of the heart muscles occur when desmosomes fail to do so
effectively
SA Node is the primary pacemaker.
However, if it fails AV node takes over
If both fail, ectopic pacemakers take over
oEctopic pacemaker: unusual/abnormal pacemaker regions e.g. ventricles
The heart contracts from the bottom up, to effectively be more efficient in pumping it
out to the body.
Concerning pacemakers, leads are led through the superior vena cava. 2 leads present:
Lead 1: goes straight to SA node region
Lead 2: goes straight to bottom apex of heart (ventricle myocardium), to stimulate
muscle depolarization in ventricles
3rd degree heart block: occurs when no electrical transmission occurs AT ALL b/n atrium
and ventricle
No consistent relationship b/n P wave and QRS complex
More atrial depolarisations than ventricular ones, instead of 1:1 relationship
So AV node is failing to transmit conduction
Ectopic pacemakers attempt to regulate heart pattern
There are three phases to an action potential: Slide 22
1.Depolarization
2.Repolarisation
3.Resting phase
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 1 Study Notes CO = HR x SV SV = Stroke volume the amount of blood pumped by beat CO = Cardiac output the amount of blood pumped per minute BP = CO x PR or BP = (HR x SV) x PR BP = Blood pressure. The main aim is to prevent low blood pressure, which kills very quickly, as opposed to high blood pressure, which takes years PR = Peripheral resistance: resistance to blood flow within circulation that happens primarily in arteries and arterioles Flow of blood from right side of heart (blue: de-oxygenated blood) (red: oxygenated blood): Superiorinferior vena cava Right Atrium Tricuspid valve Right Ventricle Pulmonary Valve Pulmonary Arteries Lungs Pulmonary Veins Left Atrium Bicuspid Valve Left Ventricle AorticSemilunar Valve Aorta Systematic circulation Heart is 4 chambered Conduction System of the heart Sinoatrial Node (SA node): primary pacemaker - group of cells with no resting potential, hence they depolarize spontaneously. This is the beginning of the conduction pathway Internodal Pathways: transmit the conduction from SA node throughout left and right atria Atrioventricular Node (AV node): transmits conduction to the ventricles AV bundleBundle of HIS: transmit conduction down apex of heart to Right and Left Branch Bundles Branch Bundles: transmit conduction to either right ventricle Purkinje fibres or left ventricle Purkinje fibres Purkinje Fibres: cause contraction of ventricles Fill in the pathway: slide 12 - www.notesolution.com
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