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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC34H3
Professor
Stephen Reid

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Lecture 15 study Notes
Slide 1
Four different types of EEG patterns
1.Alpha Waves (10 Hz)
Relaxed state of wakefulness (eyes closed *decreases with eyes open)
2.Beta waves (14 30 Hz)
Produced by visual stimulation and mental activity (faster than alpha
waves)
3.Theta waves (4-8 Hz)
Occurs during sleep
Occurs with severe emotional stress i.e. not normal in healthy people
4.Delta waves (<4 Hz)
Prominent during very deep sleep
Rare and often pathological during wakefulness
Slide 2
EEG biofeedback treatment: trains patients to produce desired types of EEG
waves
oTo treat ADD
Patient is trained to produce Beta waves (associated with
concentration), rather than theta waves (associated with daydreaming)
oTo treat anxiety
Patient is trained to produce alpha waves (associated with relaxation),
rather than beta waves (concentration and anxiety)
Slide 3
Reason why we sleep is not fully known
www.notesolution.com
oBoth wakefulness and sleep are active states controlled by specific groups of
brain structures
Raphe Nuclei in pons controls REM sleep
Hypothalamus: regulates slow wave sleep
Reticular formation: controls wakefulness and arousal
Slide 4
Slow Wave SleepREM sleep
Decreased Brain ActivityIncreased Brain Activity
Low Frequency EEGHigh Frequency EEG
Decreased Parasympathetic ActivityMuscle Twitching
Decreased Muscle Tone Paralysis
Snoring No Snoring
4 Stages of SWSRapid Eye Movement
Logical DreamsEmotional Narrative Dreams
We spend more time in REM sleep
oAs the night progresses, we begin to skip stage 3 and 4 of SWS
Slide 5 6
Stage 1
oAwake (Alert): beta waves (14-30 Hz)
oAwake (resting): alpha waves (10 Hz)
Activity becomes more synchronised
Stage 2
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 15 study Notes Slide 1 Four different types of EEG patterns 1. Alpha Waves (10 Hz) Relaxed state of wakefulness (eyes closed *decreases with eyes open) 2. Beta waves (14 30 Hz) Produced by visual stimulation and mental activity (faster than alpha waves) 3. Theta waves (4-8 Hz) Occurs during sleep Occurs with severe emotional stress i.e. not normal in healthy people 4. Delta waves (<4 Hz) Prominent during very deep sleep Rare and often pathological during wakefulness Slide 2 EEG biofeedback treatment: trains patients to produce desired types of EEG waves o To treat ADD Patient is trained to produceBeta waves (associated with concentration), rather than theta waves (associated with daydreaming) o To treat anxiety Patient is trained to producealpha waves (associated with relaxation), rather than beta waves (concentration and anxiety) Slide 3 Reason why we sleep is not fully known www.notesolution.com
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