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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC34H3
Professor
Stephen Reid

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Lecture 17 Study Notes
The Glomerular Filtration Rate of humans is 180 litres/day
oGFR = 180 L/day
oUrine produced = 1.5 L/day
oRemaining 178.5 L is reabsorbed by the kidneys back into the blood to be
utilized by the body
oGFR in a healthy person remains relatively constant
oIntrinsic regulation of GFR
1.Myogenic regulation of smooth muscle on afferent arteriole leading
into glomerulus
Through contraction of vascular smooth muscle on afferent
arteriole
Increase in MAPIncrease in afferent arteriole
pressureIncrease in stretch of afferent arterioleContraction
of smooth muscleIncreased resistance/decreased blood
flowDecreased glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure
(Pglom inherently favours filtration)Maintains GFR
2.Tubuloglomerular feedback
Alters resistance in afferent arteriole by causing macula densa
(*Remember them?) to release paracrine substances that cause
vasoconstriction around afferent arteriole
Increase in MAPIncrease in afferent arteriole
pressureIncrease in PglomIncrease in GF
pressureIncrease GFRIncreased flow at Macula Densa
(which shows increased flow in distal tubule)release of
paracrine substancesVasoconstriction of smooth muscle on
afferent arteriole
3.Mesangial cell contraction
Mesangial cells are modified smooth muscle cells found on
glomerular capillaries
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Changes permeability of filtration barrier by contracting in
response to increased MAP, covering slit pores (entrance to
bowmans capsule)
The kidney performs 4 main processes in respect to filtration
i.Glomerular filtration (Lecture 16 Study Notes)
ii.Tubular reabsorption
Refers to selective movement of substances from inside tubule back into
blood (proteins excluded). ATP facilitates movement
Most reabsorption occurs in proximal and distal convoluted
tubes, which are covered in peritubular capillaries
oGlucose reabsorption 100%
Reabsorption can be passive or active/facilitated diffusion
Passive transport: moves from high to low in concentration
gradient
oFollows water
Active/facilitated: you can have active transport on apical
membrane (facing tubular lumen), and facilitated on
basolateral side (facing plasma/blood) or vice versa
iii.Tubular secretion
Refers to the selective transfer of substances from capillary
blood /plasma into tubule
oOpposite to reabsorption
oSecreted into tubule at a point beyond glomerulus
Can be active or facilitated transport
iv.Excretion
Amount excreted = (amount filtered + amount secreted) amount
reabsorbed
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Description
Lecture 17 Study Notes The Glomerular Filtration Rate of humans is 180 litresday o GFR = 180 Lday o Urine produced = 1.5 Lday o Remaining 178.5 L is reabsorbed by the kidneys back into the blood to be utilized by the body o GFR in a healthy person remains relatively constant o Intrinsic regulation of GFR 1. Myogenic regulation of smooth muscle on afferent arteriole leading into glomerulus Through contraction of vascular smooth muscle on afferent arteriole Increase in MAPIncrease in afferent arteriole pressureIncrease in stretch of afferent arterioleContraction of smooth muscleIncreased resistancedecreased blood flowDecreased glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pglom inherently favours filtration)Maintains GFR 2. Tubuloglomerular feedback Alters resistance in afferent arteriole by causing macula densa (*Remember them?) to release paracrine substances that cause vasoconstriction around afferent arteriole Increase in MAPIncrease in afferent arteriole pressureIncrease in PglomIncrease in GF pressureIncrease GFRIncreased flow at Macula Densa (which shows increased flow in distal tubule)release of paracrine substancesVasoconstriction of smooth muscle on afferent arteriole 3. Mesangial cell contraction Mesangial cells are modified smooth muscle cells found on glomerular capillaries www.notesolution.com
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