BIOC54H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Cultural Learning, Data Visualization, Batesian Mimicry
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William ‘s principal: investment int eh present comes at the cost of investment in thef ture
PS: based on RE( reproductive effort)
FS: based on somatic effct(SE)
Precocial: young---r selection
o Altricial young-K selection ( king!)
William trivial hypothesis
o Mother in higher social rank moiré likely to have sons
Tirvers ‘s PI theory
o Anything done by the parent for the oioffsrping that increase their’ chance of survival
, while decrease the paretns’s ability to invest in oterh sooffsring
R*b needs to be >c , for the paretnt to keep on investing in parentnin ghte
current offpsing, instead of withholding the resources for another round of
reproducitng and parenting the fugure offsirng
o Guppies’s leaoping frogging behavior when in face of predatoion
Leaving in a group, more likely to encounter the person another time, so better
cooperature, insetae of defect
TM: Hanmilton’s rule
o Of inclusive finess ( direct fitness, plus indirect fitness)
o Keeps on helopuig each other, as long as r*b>c ( same as when to switch parenting to
antother round of offspring)
. Hamilton's Rule (of Inclusive Fitness):
Other ways of thinking about it ...
You will help an individual (whether it be protecting them, feeding them, etc.) as long as
the benefit to them, devalued by the degree of relatedness between you, is greater than
the cost to you.
When you help out individual, you’re not just going to weight the benefit you are giving
them equally with the cost you are paying! You’re going to re-weight the benefit by the
probability that they share your genes.
The more distantly related an individual is, the less cost you are willing to pay to benefit
them. Conversely, the more closely related they are, the more you are willing to sacrifice
to help them
Optimal foraging theory
o What are the factosr to consider when you forage ?