BIOC54H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Truancy, Heritability, Selective Breeding

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9 May 2012

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thomas malthus
-evolution/natural selection keep human population in check , such as famine and
darwinism logic: focus on 'trait' increasein frequency
modern evolution approach: focus on 'allele' increase in frequency
so fitness benefit can be defined in two ways
positive effect on the trait on the number of surviving offspring , or t
what determines what is the most 'adv pheno'?
but note that
environemnt NOT cause evolution / phenotypes differentces
the genetic variation is already there,
the the enviroment acts as a agent, to eliminate more type A than type B species
so type B animals survive more, and you see the evolutionary changes .
so environment just reveals ( by eliminating the lesss advang pheno) the underlying genetic
variation, which is already present in the population
--example: you see different types (sized differently ) of guppy in the upstream and
--example 2: xenophobia( rejection of same specices, even different genders in more frequent
in the arid environment
--there has to be a time where you have both xenophobia mole rats, and normal ones in
the arid environment, but as the local envion is very limited for food, the envionr acts on the
mole rats( phenotype), and leaves more xenophobia mole in the arid
--same process happens
viral vector to transfer( insert) a gene into the animal of interested to study a behaviour
-caus you suspect hat this gene is responsible for this behaviour
-example: vasopression for fidelity/sociality
what is cross fostering?
--take the kids away from the genetic parents, and let some different parents( enieonr)
to rear it up , so that the two kids separated only have one thing in common --genetics --which
is what you want to study , to see if this behaviour is solely determined y genetics ?
what are the methods to study multiple gene behaviour?
--cross fostering, variance (heritability)
---measure heritability ? two ways to do controlled breeding experiment (how
to control it?)
1 parent offspring regression ( let parent breed and test the similarity
between them and you : the slope is the heritability) --note for 'language' , though you see
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