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Lecture 1-9 material

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC54H3
Professor
Maydianne Andrade

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09/04/2011 10:07:00
Lecture 1
-When trying to understand the behavior of a species, it is important to make hypotheses,
then predictions of the expected results should your hypothesis be correct.
-Questions need to be answered in terms of fitness and lifetime reproductive success
oFitness
oLifetime reproductive success
-Everything is driven by costs and benefits to the individual
-Costs and benefits to the individual along with the effects to its offspring
Lecture 2 – Development and Genetics of Behaviour
-Variability and Heritability of behavior: Can be measured asdiscrete” or quantitatively–
for example numbers of individuals who possess the trait. Can be measured as
“continuous or qualitatively – for example eye colour of individuals, measured on a
continuous scale
-Traits can be seen as a being heritable if: there is a genetic basis of behavior, if there is
variation for that trait in a population, and the trait allows for an increase in fitness
-Remember* That just because you have the gene for a certain trait does not mean that it
will be manifested
-Remember* That a change in gene expression means that there is a change in protein
expression, this may or may not change a change in behavior.
-The interaction between the protein that have been expressed need to change in order for
behavior to change
-Genetics can be the vehicle which gives rise to a certain trait but there is also
environmental effects
-There are certain behaviours that are controlled by genetics, and there are others that are
controlled by the environment
-Proof that could suggest that a certain trait is genetically controlled is the effect of natural
selection of that trait
www.notesolution.com
-Needs to be variation of that trait in the population
-Lifetime reproductive success needs to increase with the possession of that trait
therefore, those who have it can pass it on to their offspring and the trait will manifest
-Main points/summary – there are genetic and environmental effects on behavior traits,
just like physical traits. Behaviour can be viewed this way only if there is variation of the
trait in the population, if the trait is heritable, and if it increases lifetime reproductive
success of the individuals in that population. It should be noted that there is a genetic
control as well as an environmental control on certain behavior traits. Also, that
possession of a gene for a certain trait does not necessarily mean its expression. Traits
can be categorized as discrete or continuous, and can be measured this way.
Lecture 3 – Trade-Off’s & Cost-Benefit Analysis
-Every behavioural action comes with a benefit and a cost
-Costs arise due to the limited amounts of energy and time that an individual has
oA trade off is made for doing an act/behavior
oA behavior is optimal when looking at the benefits and costs that the individual
experiences when engaging in a behavior
oOptimal behavior is found when there is the most amount of benefit per unit work
oIn order for the behavior to manifest in the population it must offer the individuals
engaging in the behavior a net benefit increase
-Optimality Theory:
oSuggests that optimal behavior is when there is the most amount of benefit per
unit cost when engaging in a behavior
oThere are assumptions that need to be kept in mind/Assumptions:
Optimal trait level= Fitness benefits – Fitness cost is how we arrive as to
why the individual has engaged in that behavior.
The traits seen in a population only got there because it has increased the
LRS of the individuals in a population
There have been variants in the different traits in the evolutionary past of
the population.
The current trait seen in a population already has reached the
“evolutionary equilibrium which means that optimal trait has been
reached
www.notesolution.com
But we know that this optimality theory is just a prediction of how the
prevalent traits in a given population came to be. (ie. fitness benefits
fitness cost)
Optimality theory helps with predicting what we can expect in terms of
cost and benefits when looking at an individual engaging in a particular
behavior.
oIt should be noted that the optimal trait level of behavior (maximum benefit per
unit cost) is only a prediction. Environmental factors as well as internal factors
will affect the real outcome of the trait in a cost benefit curve
External Factors - The environmental factors, predators and etc.
Internal Factors – Factors that can limit the individual’s optimal
performance
oEven though the optimal trait level gives the “highest fitness benefit that does
not mean that the “highest fitness payoff” is reached as well
Highest fitness benefit – The maximum benefit per unit cost received by
engaging in a behavior (predicted)
Highest fitness payoff – the maximum benefit per unit cost with the
affects of environment and internal limitations in mind (actual)
In order to use an “adaptive behavior decision rule – that the trait has a net fitness benefit for
the individuals in the population
Lecture 4 – Reproductive Behaviour: Sexual Selection Pt.1
Sexually dimorphic behavior
Sexual selection: female choice and adaptations for competition
Sexual Selection: The advantage that some individuals have over others in getting mates
-Parental Investments create sexual dimorphisms
oParental investments are resources (time, energy, or risks) spent by one parent to
current offspring that reduces the resources available for future offspring
Potential Reproductive Rates
www.notesolution.com

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Description
09042011 10:07:00 Lecture 1 - When trying to understand the behavior of a species, it is important to make hypotheses, then predictions of the expected results should your hypothesis be correct. - Questions need to be answered in terms of fitness and lifetime reproductive success o Fitness o Lifetime reproductive success - Everything is driven by costs and benefits to the individual - Costs and benefits to the individual along with the effects to its offspring Lecture 2 Development and Genetics of Behaviour - Variability and Heritability of behavior: Can be measured as discrete or quantitatively for example numbers of individuals who possess the trait. Can be measured as continuous or qualitatively for example eye colour of individuals, measured on a continuous scale - Traits can be seen as a being heritable if: there is a genetic basis of behavior, if there is variation for that trait in a population, and the trait allows for an increase in fitness - Remember* That just because you have the gene for a certain trait does not mean that it will be manifested - Remember* That a change in gene expression means that there is a change in protein expression, this may or may not change a change in behavior. - The interaction between the protein that have been expressed need to change in order for behavior to change - Genetics can be the vehicle which gives rise to a certain trait but there is also environmental effects - There are certain behaviours that are controlled by genetics, and there are others that are controlled by the environment - Proof that could suggest that a certain trait is genetically controlled is the effect of natural selection of that trait www.notesolution.com
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