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BIOD60H3 Study Guide - Fetus, Archaea, Venn Diagram


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOD60H3
Professor
Shelley A.Brunt

Page:
of 2
FSG Session #1: BIOB10Y3: Cell and Molecular Aspects of Genetic Processes
Section # 1: Terms to know
Endosymbiont: is a combination of two cells living together in a __________________
relationship; one cell lives ___________ the other.
Cell Differentiation: The process by which
________________________________________.
Section # 2: Short Answers
1) Using the Venn diagram below, compare and contrast Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.
2) The two major groups of prokaryotes are Archaea (archaebacteria) and Bacteria
(eubacteria). T or F? List an example under each group.
3) What are the advantages of cultured cells?
4) What are the steps for the preparation of cells in Light Microscopy (3 steps)?
-Haemotoxylin stains _________________ (blueish) and Eosin stains _____________
(pinkish) .
5) In lecture the many basic properties of cells were described, list all of them
(there were 9) and try to come up with some reasons as to why these basic properties are
significant to cells.
6) Electron Microscopy: Uses _________ as a “light source”. The resolution of a
microscope is directly proportional to the wavelength of its light source: the _________ the
wavelength - the poorer the resolution.
- Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) form images using electrons that are
transmitted ___________ a specimen, whereas scanning electron microscopes (SEMs)
utilize electrons that have _____________ off the surface of the specimen.
7) Freeze fracture and freeze etching techniques: Turn to your neighbor and take turns and
try to explain this process.
8) Cell Replacement Therapy:
-Stem cells are defined as undifferentiated cells that (1) are capable of self-renewal, that is,
production of more cells like them- selves, and (2) are capable of differentiating into ____ or more
mature cell types.
- Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are a type of stem cell isolated from very young mammalian
embryos. These are the cells in the early embryo that give rise to all of the various structures of the
mammalian fetus. Unlike adult stem cells, ES cells are ___________; that is, they are capable of
differentiating into ______ type of cell in the body.
“Customizing” ES cells”: Describe a potential procedure for obtaining differentiated cells
for use in cell replacement therapy.
-Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) = reprogrammed somatic cells by introduction of ______
______ into them.
Section # 3: Multiple Choice
1) Which of the following characteristics is (are) not a basic property of cells?
a. Cells are highly complex and organized.
b. Cells possess a genetic program and the means to use it.
c. Cells are capable of producing more of themselves.
d. Cells acquire and utilize energy.
e. None of the above
2) What characteristics distinguish prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
a. Eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles; prokaryotes do not.
b. Prokaryotes have relatively little DNA; eukaryotes generally have much more.
c. Eukaryotic chromosomes are linear; prokaryotic chromosomes are circular.
d. Prokaryotic DNA is naked or nearly naked; eukaryotic DNA is usually heavily associated
with protein.
e. All of the above