BGYA01 - Key Terms

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Biological Sciences

Chapter 1TermsatomThe smallest unit of a chemical element Consists of a nucleus and one or more electrons BiosphereAll regions of Earth terrestrial and aquaticEarths atmosphere in which organisms can live ecosystem The organisms of a particular habitat such as a pond or forest together with the physical environment in which they live community Any ecologically integrated group of species of microorganisms plants and animals inhabiting a given area population Any group of organisms coexisting at the same time and in the same place and capable of interbreeding with one another organism Any living entity organ system An interrelated and integrated group of tissues and organs that work together in a physiological function organA body part such as the heart liver brain root or leaf Organs are composed of different tissues integrated to perform a distinct function Organs are in turn often integrated into systems such as the digestive or reproductive system organelles Organized structures found in or on eukaryotic cells Examples include ribosomes nuclei mitochrondria chloroplasts cilia and contractile vacuoles tissue A group of similar cells organized into a functional unit usually integrated with other tissues to form part of an organ molecule A particle made up of two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds or ionic attractions element A substance that cannot be converted to simpler substances by ordinary chemical means consumer An organism that eats the tissues of some other organism primary producer A photosynthetic or chemosynthetic organism that synthesizes complex organic molecules from simple inorganic ones domain 1 Independent structural elements within proteins that affect the proteins function Encoded by recognizable nucleotide sequences a domain often folds separately from the rest of the protein Similar domains can appear in a variety of different proteins across phylogenetic groups eg homeobox domain calciumbinding domain 2 In phylogenetics the three monophyletic branches of Life Members of the three domains Bacteria Archaea and Eukarya are believed to have been evolving independently of each other for at least a billion years Genus A group of related similar species recognized by taxonomists with a distinct name used in binomial nomenclature species The basic lower unit of classification consisting of an ancestordescendant lineage of populations of closely related and similar organisms The more narrowly defined biological species consists of individuals capable of interbreeding freely with each other but not with members of other species emergent property A property of a complex system that is not exhibited by its individual component parts Chapter 4Termscell wall A relatively rigid structure that encloses cells of plants fungi many protists and most prokaryotes Gives these cells their shape and limits their expansion in hypotonic media extracellular matrix In animal tissues a material of heterogeneous composition surrounding cells and performing many functions including adhesion of cells chloroplastAn organelle bounded by a double membrane containing the enzymes and pigments that perform photosynthesis Chloroplasts occur only in eukaryotes granum plural grana Within a chloroplast a stack of thylakoids stroma The fluid contents of an organelle such as a chloroplast thylakoidA flattened sac within a chloroplast Thylakoid membranes contain all of the chlorophyll in a plant in addition to the electron carriers of photophosphorylation Thylakoids stack to form grana plastid Organelle in plants that serves for food manufacture by photosynthesis or food storage bounded by a double membrane cilium Hairlike organelle used for locomotion by many unicellular organisms and for moving water and mucus by many multicellular organisms Generally shorter than a flagellum Flagellum Long whiplike appendage that propels cells Prokaryotic flagella differ sharply from those found in eukaryotes pseudopod A temporary soft extension of the cell body that is used in location attachment to surfaces or engulfing particles cytoplasm The contents of the cell excluding the nucleus cytosol The fluid portion of the cytoplasm excluding organelles and other solids cytoskeleton The network of microtubules and microfilaments that gives a eukaryotic cell its shape and its capacity to arrange its organelles and to move desmosome An adhering junction between animal cells gap junction A 27nanometer gap between plasma membranes of two animal cells spanned by protein channels Gap junctions allow chemical substances or electrical signals to pass from cell to cell tight junction A junction between epithelial cells in which there is no gap whatever between the adjacent cells Materials may pass through a tight junction only by entering the epithelial cells themselves plasmodesma plural plasmodesmata Gk plassein to molddesmos band A cytoplasmic strand connecting two adjacent plant cells endomembrane system Endoplasmic reticulum plus Golgi apparatus also lysosomes when present A system of membranes that exchange material with one another endoplasmic reticulum ER A system of membranous tubes and flattened sacs found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes Exists in two forms rough ER studded with ribosomes and smooth ER lacking ribosomes rough ER That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum whose outer surface has attached ribosomes ribosome A small organelle that is the site of protein synthesis
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