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Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Biology Study Notes Biological Systems: 1) Biological Systems: Group of organs work together to perform a function 2) Organ System: Group of 2 or more tissues working to do a task 3) Tissues: Specialized cells doing a common function 4) Cells: Basic unit of life Respiratory: Gas exchange between organism and the environment Circulatory: Transporting nutrients and other material to cells of the organism Digestive: Breaks down food into smaller molecules so that it can be absorbed Cellular Respiration: Glucose + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP (energy for life) Respiratory System Basic requirements: Large resp. Surface: enough to meet requirements Moist: dissolve gases Exchange Methods: Simple Diffusion: short distances, concentration + -> low Skin: capillaries under skin does gas exchange (worm) Lungs: mammal vertebrate’s preferred mechanism Human R System: Parts: Nasal Cavity: Nostrils; take air in Oral Cavity: Mouth; take air in Nasal Passages: Thin bone turbinate cleans; mucus, moistens air Pharynx: Trachea/Esophagus, connects mouth to larynx/esophagus Epiglottis: Flap: prevents food from falling into trachea Glottis: Opening of the windpipe. Larynx
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