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Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Blood Vessels Arteries: carry oxygenated blood away from heart -Strong thick muscular wall -Elastic and stretchy -In heart, Pulmonary Arteries take deoxygenated blood out. Veins: returns deoxygenated blood to heart -Thin, smooth, walls -Contains one way valves to prevent backflow -In heart, Arteries and Veins switch roles -Lowest pressure -In heart, Pulmonary Veins bring oxygenated blood in. Capillaries: smallest vessels, one cell thick, used for gas exchange -Sphincter: muscle that controls the flow of blood in the capillary bed. Heart -> Arteries -> Arterioles (smaller arteries) -> Capillaries -> Venules (smaller veins) -> Veins -> heart. Blood: transports gases and nutrients (Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Platelets are formed components of Blood) 1) Red Blood Cells: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, nutrients 1% 2) White Blood cells: fight off foreign agents 1% 3) Platelets: help blood clot 8% 4) Plasma: water, help blood flow 90% Divisions Coronary Circulation: Pathway Inside heart Pulmonary Circulation: Pathway between heart and lung Systemic Circulation: Pathway between heart and body Heart: muscle organ left side of chest cavity under sternum Chambers Atria: collecting blood when they return -Both contracts at the same time -Right atrium receives blood from body -Left atrium receives blood from lung Ventricles: contracts at the same time -Right ventricle pumps blood through arteries to lung -Left ventricle pumps through Aorta to body -thick walls to resist gravity Atrioventricular valves -leads into ventricles -Right = tricspid valve -Left = bicuspid valve Semilunar Valves -Gateway to pulmonary artery and Aorta -Aortic and pulmonary valve -prevents backflow Order of Heart cycle Inferior Vena Cava Right Atrium Tricuspid Valve Right Ventricle Pulmonary Semilun
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