Cycle of cell division
Note: Chromosomes: Colored bodies.
Q/ Describe bacterial genome G1: First section of grow (increase of size and protein
A/Circular chromosome that divides by binary fission synthesis)
resulting in identical daughter cells. It has an origin of S( synthesis): DNA replication and chromosomal
replication that works in both ways until they meet. proteins duplicate (2 sister chromatids)
Origin of replication is also called ori. G2: Period after DNA replicates prepares for division
Q/ What are Plasmids and what are they useful for?
A/ Smaller circular pieces of DNA found in bacteria. 10% of the cycle of division is during mitosis:
F-plasmids have genes for sex Pilli production Proface: Centrosome divided into 2 forming
(for conjugative…) and 1 half is passed on and spindle (microtubules organizing center)
serves as a template for replication of plasmids. condenses. Each chromosomes is compacted
(Eg. Antibiotic ressistance passed on) and nuclear envelope changes
Premetaphase: Nuclear envelop disappears
Eukaryotic chromosomes and spindles enters nuclear area. Microtubules
attach to the two kinetochores of each
Q/ What is Chromatin chromosome.
A/ Structural building block (where color comes from). A Metaphase: Chromosome align into the middle
complex of DNA associated with proteins used for
compacting (Two major types: Histone/non-histone) of spindle and compact.
Anaphase: Spindle separates sister chromatids
into opposite spindle poles.
Q/ What are histones? Telophase: Chromosome unfolds new nuclear
A/ Small positive-charged (basic (basic aminoacids)) envelope forms.
proteins complex that are attracted to DNA due to
negatively charged phosphates
Five types H1,H2A,H2B, H3, H4 G0: No longer replicating (where we humans are after
They compact DNA in nuclei and regulate DNA activity. growth is completed)
Q/ What are kinetichore