BioMidtermModule2Lect14Study notes.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Effiette Sauer

Cycle of cell division Note: Chromosomes: Colored bodies. 90% interphase Q/ Describe bacterial genome G1: First section of grow (increase of size and protein A/Circular chromosome that divides by binary fission synthesis) resulting in identical daughter cells. It has an origin of S( synthesis): DNA replication and chromosomal replication that works in both ways until they meet. proteins duplicate (2 sister chromatids) Origin of replication is also called ori. G2: Period after DNA replicates prepares for division (mitosis) Q/ What are Plasmids and what are they useful for? A/ Smaller circular pieces of DNA found in bacteria. 10% of the cycle of division is during mitosis: F-plasmids have genes for sex Pilli production  Proface: Centrosome divided into 2 forming (for conjugative…) and 1 half is passed on and spindle (microtubules organizing center) serves as a template for replication of plasmids. condenses. Each chromosomes is compacted (Eg. Antibiotic ressistance passed on) and nuclear envelope changes  Premetaphase: Nuclear envelop disappears Eukaryotic chromosomes and spindles enters nuclear area. Microtubules attach to the two kinetochores of each Q/ What is Chromatin chromosome. A/ Structural building block (where color comes from). A  Metaphase: Chromosome align into the middle complex of DNA associated with proteins used for compacting (Two major types: Histone/non-histone) of spindle and compact.  Anaphase: Spindle separates sister chromatids into opposite spindle poles. Q/ What are histones?  Telophase: Chromosome unfolds new nuclear A/ Small positive-charged (basic (basic aminoacids)) envelope forms. proteins complex that are attracted to DNA due to negatively charged phosphates Five types H1,H2A,H2B, H3, H4 G0: No longer replicating (where we humans are after They compact DNA in nuclei and regulate DNA activity. growth is completed) Q/ What are kinetichore
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