chapter 3

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Biological Sciences
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My Notes Chapter 3Lecture 4 31 What kinds of molecules characterize living things y Four kinds of molecules are characteristic of living things proteins carbohydrates lipids and nucleic acidsa large molecule made up of similar or identical subunits called monomers y Polymersy Monomers A small molecule two or more of which can be combine to form oligomersy Chains of chemically similar sugar monomers saccharides form the different carbohydrates the thousands of different proteins are formed from combinations of a mere 20 amino acids all of which share chemical similaritiesa giant polymeric moleculeThe macromolecules are proteins y Macromoleculespolysaccharides and nucleic acids y Functional groups a characteristic combination of atoms that contribute specific properties when attached to larger moleculesmolecules that have the same chemical formulathe same kinds and numbers of y Isomersatomsbut the atoms are arranged differentlyUses the prefix iso meaning the samediffer in how their atoms are joined together y Structural isomersOptical isomers occur when a carbon atom has four different atoms or groups of atoms attached to it y Each type of macromolecule performs some combination of functions such as energy storage structural support protection catalysis speeding up a chemical reaction transport defence regulation movement and information storage y Condensation reactions dehydration reactions a reaction in which two molecules become connected by a covalent bond and a molecule of water is released AHBOH ABH2Oa chemical reaction that breaks a bond by inserting the components of y Hydrolysis reactionwater ABH2OAHBOHHydrolysis reactions digest polymers and produce monomers32 What are the chemical structures and functions of proteins y Proteins one of the most fundamental building substances of living organismsA longchain polymer of amino acids with 20 different common side chainsOccurs with its polymer chain extended in fibrous proteins or coiled into a compact macromolecule in enzymes and other globular proteinsFunctions structural support protection transport catalysis defence regulation and movement Amino Acids organic compounds containing both NH2 and COOH groupsProteins are polymers of amino acidsEach protein consists of a single unbranched polymer of amino acids a polypeptide chain which is folded into specific threedimensional shape y Amino acids have both a carboxyl functional group and an amino functional group attached to the same carbon atom called the alpha carbonAttached to the alpha carbon atom is a hydrogen atom and a side chain or R groupSide Chain R group the distinguishing group of atoms of a particular amino acid
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