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Biological Sciences

term test module two hasenkampf chapter nine 1. during the cell cycle, the dna mass of a cell a. decreases during g1 phase b. decreases during metaphase c. increases during the s phase d. increases during g2 phase e. decreases during interphase 2. honeybee eggs that are not fertilized develop into fertile haploid males called 'drones'. fertilized eggs can develop into diploid females, one of which might because a 'queen'. (fertilized eggs might also become males, but they are taken out and killed by the drones) if the queen has 32 chromosomes in her body cells, how many chromatids would be present in a g2 drone cell? a. 8 b. 16 c. 24 d. 32 e. 64 3. the major microtubule organizing centre of the animal cell is a. chromosomes, composed of chromatids b. the centrosome, composed of centrioles c. the chromatin, composed of chromatids d. chromosomes, composed of centromere e. centrioles, composed of centrosome 4. for a given cell, the number of _________ is higher at the end of s phase than at the beginning. a. nuclei b. chromatids c. chromosomes d. CDK2 molecules e. both b and c are correct 5. which of the following statements about mitosis is incorrect? a. microtubules can bind to kinetochores and interact with other microtubules from opposite poles b. in anaphase, the spindle separates sister chromatids and pulls them apart c. chromosomes congregate near the centre of the cell during metaphase. d. cytokinesis describes the movement of chromosomes e. both the animal cell furrow and the plant cell plate form at their former spindle midpoints 6. in bacteria. a. several chromosomes undergo mitosis b. binary fission produces four daughter cells c. replication begins at the ori and the dna strand separates d. replication occurs in the same direction off each opposite strand e. the daughter cells receive different genetic information from the parent cell. chapter ten 7. if recombination occurred between bacteria as shown in the figure, the result would be (page 226 Q#1) a. Mhv and mhV b. MHV and mhv c. Mhv and mHv d. MHV and mhV e. mhv and MhV 8. which of the following is not correct for bacterial conjugation? a. both Hfr and F+ bacteria have the ability to code for a sex pilus b. after an f- cell has conjugated with an f+, its plasmid holds the f+ factor c. the recipient cell usually becomes Hfr following conjugation d. in an Hfr x F- mating, dna of the main chromosome moves to a recipient cell. e. genes on the f factor encode proteins of the sex pilus. 9. which of the following is not correct for bacterial transformation? a. artifical tranformation is used in cloning procedures. b. avery was able to tranform live noninfective bacteria with dna from dead infective bacteria c. the cell wall and plasma membrane must be penetrated for tranformation to proceed d. a virus is required for the process e. electroporation is a form of artificial tranformation used to introduce dna into cells 10. transduction a. may allow recombination of newly introduced dna with host cell dna b. is the movement of dna from one bacterial cell to another by means of a plasmid c. can cause the dna of the donor to change but not the dna of the recipient d. is the movement of viral dna but not bacterial dna into a recipient bacterium e. requires physical contact between the two bacterium 11. the diploid number of this individual is 6 (see page 227 Q#6) (three maternal chromosomes and their paternal homologues lined up in the middle) this figure represents: a. mitotic metaphase b. meiotic metaphase I c. meiotic metaphase II d. a gamete e. six nonhomolgous chromosomes 12. chiasmata a. form during metaphase II of meiosis b. occur between two nonhomologous chromosomes. c. represent chromosomes independently assorting d. are sites of dna exchange between homologous chromatids e. ensure that the resulting cells are identical to the parent cell 13. if 2n is four, the number of possible combinations in the resulting gametes is a. 1 b. 2 c. 4 d. 8 e. 16 14. the number of human chromosomes in a cell in prophase I of meiosis is ____ and in telophase II is _____. a. 92; 46 b. 46; 23 c. 23; 23 d. 23; 16 e. 4; 2 15. the dna content in a diploid cell in g2 is x. if that cell goes into meiosis at its metaphase II, the dna content would be a. 0.1x b. 0.5x c. x d. 2x e. 4x chapter eleven 16. the dominant C allele of a gene that controls color in corn produces kernels with colors; plants homozygous for a recessive c allele of this gene have colorless or white kernels. what kinds of gametes, and in what proportions, would be produced by the plants in the following crosses? what seed color and in what proportions would be expected in the offspring of the crosses? a. CC x Cc b. Cc x Cc c. Cc x cc 17. in peas, the allele T produces tall plants and the allele t produces dwarf plants. the T allele is dominant to t. if a tall plant is crossed with a dwarf, the offspring are distributed about equally between tall and dwarf plants. what are the genotypes of the parents? 18. the ability of humans to taste the bitter chemical phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) is a genetic trait. people with at least one copy of the normal, dominant allele of the PTC gene can taste PTC; those who are homozygous for a mutant, recessive allele cannot taste it. could two parents able to taste PTC have a nontaster child? could nontaster paretns have a child able to taste PTC? a pair of taster parents, both of whom had one parent able to taste PTC and one nontaster parent, are expecting their first child. what is the chance that the child will be able to taste PTC? unable to taste PTC? suppose the first child is a nontaster. what is the chance that their second child will also be unable to taste PTC? 19. one gene has the alleles A and a; another gene has the alleles B and b. for each of the following genotypes, what types of gametes will be produced, and in what proportions, if the two gene pairs assort independently? a. AA BB b. Aa BB c. Aa bb d. Aa Bb 20. what genotypes, and in what frequencies, will be present in the offspring from the following matings? a. AA BB x aa BB b. Aa BB x AA Bb c. Aa Bb x aa bb d. Aa Bb x Aa Bb 21. in addition to the two genes in problem 14, assume you now study a third independently assorting gene that has the alleles C and c. for each of the following genotypes, indicate what types of gametes will be produced a. AA BB CC b. Aa BB cc c. Aa BB Cc d. Aa Bb Cc 22. a man is homozygous dominant for alleles at 10 different genes that assort independently. how many genotypically different types of sperm cells can he produce? a woman is homozygous recessive for the alleles of 8 of these 10 genes, but she is heterozygous for the other two genes. how many genotypically different types of eggs can she produce? what hypothesis can you suggest to describe the relationship between the number of different possible gametes and the number of heterozygous and homozygous genes that are present? 23. in guinea pigs, an allele for rough fur, R, is dominant over an allele for smooth fur, r; an allele for black coat, B, is dominant over that for white, b. you have an animal with rough, black fur. what cross would you use to determine whether the animal is homozygous for these traits? what phenotype would you expect in the offspring if the animal is homozygous? 24. in garden peas, the genotypes GG or Gg produce green pods and gg produces yellow pods; TT or Tt plants are tall and tt plants are dwarfed; RR or Rr produce round seeds and rr produces wrinkled seeds. if a plant of a true- breeding, tall variety with green pods and round seeds is crossed with a plant of a true-breeding, dwarf variety with yellow pods and wrinkled seeds, what phenotypes are expected, and in what ratios, in the f1 generation? what phenotypes, and in what ratios, are expected if f1 individuals are crossed? 25. in chickens, feathered legs are produced by a dominant allele F. another allele f of the same gene produces ffeatherless legs, the dominant allele P of a gene at a different locus produces pea combs; a rececessive allele p of this gene causes single combs. a breeder makes the following crosses with birds 1,2,3 and 4; all parrents have feathered legs and pea combs: cross offspring 1x2 all feathered, pea comb 1x3 ¾ feathered; ¼ featherless, all pea comb 1x4 9/16 feathered, pea comb; 3/16 featherless, pea comb; 3/16 feathered, single comb; 1/16 featherless, single comb what are the genotypes of the four birds? chapter thirteen 26. working on the amazon river, a biologist isolated dna from two unknown organisms, P and Q. he discovered that the adenine content of P was 15% and the cytosine content of Q was 42%, this means that a. the amount of guanine in P is 15% b. the amount of guanine and cytos
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