Lecture 23 Emotions and Motivation
Emotion helps motivate us
Behaviour level: How well we wear our behaviour on our face
Autonomic level: the feeling we get inside
Hormonal level: give rise to different hormones depending on our emotion
A lot of our emotional states come from conditional states (Little albert-becomes afraid of furry
things, and as a result he started to fear other things)
Through conditioning we learn to worry/ be fearful of something
Amygdala (very sensitive to conditioning)-it deals with the emotion of fear and any other
negative emotional response
Brain Chemistry: Serotonin (high) we begin to feel good.
Using drugs like Prozac, they block the reuptake of serotonin, and prevent it from going back
into neuron cells. It produces more serotonin in your brain, and therefore stops releasing
serotonin. Therefore it will need more.
Morphine-deals with pain
Emotions are caused by a chemical balance. And vice versa-a behaviour dynamic system
Phineas Gage: After his accident, his emotions/behaviour changed.
He taught us emotional regulation. We can feel that emotion but we shouldn’t tell everyone
how we feel-requires prefrontal cortex.
Pre-frontal cortex-detangles right from wrong, emotional context, and deals with philosophical
When we feel our emotions we express it through facial expressions and physical behaviour
(voice, body, facial expressions)
We communicate emotions through body language. We read these emotions unconsciously.
Facial emotions are universal and cross cultural
Dndferent theories: 1 theory we have stimulus, then fear, then arousal
2 theory: stimulus, arousal, then fear (Deals with the situation): James Lange.
Threat-subcortical regions of the brain-then the you simultaneously feel the conscious feeling
and autonomic arousal
4 theory : stimulus-automatic arousal-appraisal-conscious feeling(Your ultimate feeling is the
appraisal-how you think about it)
People with the spinal cord damage-you have to feel the arousal (happens in the body, quick
breathing, sweating), they normally don’t feel these arousal-therefore don’t feel extreme
emotions (James Lange theory) Lecture 24: Motivation
Emotional Regulation (last lecture): within our psyche are emotions are in check
Whatever makes us happy or sad, there is a counterforce-bring us to neutral
What drives us-motivation
We have an optimum level of arousal (sometimes we seek for stimulation or get away from it)
Negative feedback: correctional mechanism kicks in, in order to shut itself off
Homeostasis: we want to be at a certain level with our basic biological need. When levels
becomes out of wack, we have mechanism that help bring us back to our level
Drive reduction hypothesis: biological drive helps us to act, that bring us back to homeostasis-
hard to measure the variable, beyond the biological drive (how we figure out why you come to
Sometimes we are motivated to make a drive more extreme-polar bear swim people do in the
winter. They are already very cold, they get even colder.
Notion: Optimum level theory. Cognitive arousal-we want a certain level of activity in our lives.