Lecture 23 Emotions and Motivation.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Jamie Donaldson

Lecture 23 Emotions and Motivation  Emotion helps motivate us  Behaviour level: How well we wear our behaviour on our face  Autonomic level: the feeling we get inside  Hormonal level: give rise to different hormones depending on our emotion  A lot of our emotional states come from conditional states (Little albert-becomes afraid of furry things, and as a result he started to fear other things)  Through conditioning we learn to worry/ be fearful of something  Amygdala (very sensitive to conditioning)-it deals with the emotion of fear and any other negative emotional response  Brain Chemistry: Serotonin (high) we begin to feel good.  Using drugs like Prozac, they block the reuptake of serotonin, and prevent it from going back into neuron cells. It produces more serotonin in your brain, and therefore stops releasing serotonin. Therefore it will need more.  Morphine-deals with pain  Emotions are caused by a chemical balance. And vice versa-a behaviour dynamic system  Phineas Gage: After his accident, his emotions/behaviour changed.  He taught us emotional regulation. We can feel that emotion but we shouldn’t tell everyone how we feel-requires prefrontal cortex.  Pre-frontal cortex-detangles right from wrong, emotional context, and deals with philosophical questions  When we feel our emotions we express it through facial expressions and physical behaviour (voice, body, facial expressions)  We communicate emotions through body language. We read these emotions unconsciously.  Facial emotions are universal and cross cultural st  Dndferent theories: 1 theory we have stimulus, then fear, then arousal  2 theory: stimulus, arousal, then fear (Deals with the situation): James Lange.  Threat-subcortical regions of the brain-then the you simultaneously feel the conscious feeling and autonomic arousal th  4 theory : stimulus-automatic arousal-appraisal-conscious feeling(Your ultimate feeling is the appraisal-how you think about it)  People with the spinal cord damage-you have to feel the arousal (happens in the body, quick breathing, sweating), they normally don’t feel these arousal-therefore don’t feel extreme emotions (James Lange theory) Lecture 24: Motivation  Emotional Regulation (last lecture): within our psyche are emotions are in check  Whatever makes us happy or sad, there is a counterforce-bring us to neutral  What drives us-motivation  We have an optimum level of arousal (sometimes we seek for stimulation or get away from it)  Negative feedback: correctional mechanism kicks in, in order to shut itself off  Homeostasis: we want to be at a certain level with our basic biological need. When levels becomes out of wack, we have mechanism that help bring us back to our level  Drive reduction hypothesis: biological drive helps us to act, that bring us back to homeostasis- hard to measure the variable, beyond the biological drive (how we figure out why you come to class)  Sometimes we are motivated to make a drive more extreme-polar bear swim people do in the winter. They are already very cold, they get even colder.  Notion: Optimum level theory. Cognitive arousal-we want a certain level of activity in our lives.
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