BIOA02, Module 2, Sample Exam Questions 2017
1. The August Krogh Principle states:
a) Comparative physiology strives to understand the evolutionary relationship between animals.
b) For every question in comparative physiology there is an ideal environment in which to study it.
c) For every question in biology there is an ideal model system.
d) Every question in biology has medical relevance.
e) All physiological mechanisms have some adaptive significance.
2. Which of the following most accurately describes the components of the efferent nervous
a) It consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
b) It consists of the somatic nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system.
c) It consists of the somatic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
d) It consists of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
e) It consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
3. The diagram below represents a stage of an action potential travelling down an axon. At the
point indicated by the arrow, what is the open or closed status of the sodium channel’s activation
and inactivation gates?
a) Activation gate is closed; Inactivation gate is closed
b) Activation gate is open; Inactivation gate is closed
c) Activation gate is open; Inactivation gate is open 2
4. During which phase of an action potential does sodium move into a neuron?
d) A and B
e) A and C
5. Which of the following is (or are) responsible for the absolute refractory period in a neuron?
a) During the depolarisation phase of an AP, the opening of Na channels has already been set in
motion and cannot be affected by a second stimulus. +
b) During the depolarisation phase of an AP, the opening of K channels has already been set in motion
and cannot be affected by a second stimulus.
c) During the repolarisation phase of an AP, the inactivation gate is closed and cannot be opened by a
d) A and C
e) B and C
6. Adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine) are examples of what type of
d) Fatty Acids
7. Which of the following is not a function of calcitonin?
a) It stimulates calcium deposition into the bones.
b) It reduces calcium uptake in the kidneys.
c) It decreases calcium uptake in the intestines.
d) All of the above are functions of calcitonin.
8. Which two glands release hormones that are involved in blood glucose regulation?
a) The adrenal gland and the pancreas.
b) The pancreas and the posterior pituitary.
c) The adrenal gland and the posterior pituitary.
d) The thyroid and parathyroid glands.
e) The posterior pituitary and the pineal gland. 3
9. The regulatory protein troponin binds which of the following?
a) Actin, tropomyosin and Ca . 2+
b) Myosin, tropomyosin and Ca .
c) Actin, acetylcholine and Ca .+
d) Myosin, acetylcholine and Ca . 2+
e) The thick filaments, tropomyosin and Ca .
10. Which of the following is required to prevent muscle from remaining in a state of rigor?
a) The hydrolysis of ATP into ADP and an inorganic phosphate (Pi).
b) The release of Pi from an ATPase site.
c) The release of ADP from an ATPase site.
d) The binding of ATP to the ATPase site on myosin.
e) The binding of ATP to the ATPase site on actin.
11.The pattern of muscle contraction shown illustrates which of the following?
a) A single muscle twitch.
b) An isolinear twitch triplet.
c) Twitch summation.
12. In the mammalian fetal heart, which of the following allows deoxygenated blood from the
pulmonary artery to move into the aorta?
a) The Foramen of Panizza.
b) The Foramen Ovale.
c) The Ductus Arteriosus.
d) The Foramen Arteriosus. 4
13. In lungfish, which blood vessel carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs?
a) The ventral aorta.
b) The dorsal aorta.
c) The systemic aorta.
d) The pulmonary artery.
e) The pulmonary vein.
14. In a crocodilian reptile during “normal breathing” (i.e., the animal is not underwater) which
of the following does not occur?
a) Blood flows to the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
b) The valve between the right ventricle and the left aorta is open.
c) The valve between the left ventricle and right aorta is open.
d) Blood flows from the right aorta into the left aorta.
15. Match the following hearts to the animals.
a) 1 = cat; 2 = toad; 3 = salmon; 4 = lizard
b) 1 = lizard; 2 = toad; 3 = salmon; 4 = cat
c) 1 = human; 2 = lizard; 3 = trout; 4 = cat
d) 1 = human; 2 = lizard; 3 = trout; 4 = crocodile
e) 1 = crocodile; 2 = toad; 3 = trout; 4 = lizard 5
16. What is the site of gas exchange (i.e., oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide excretion) on the gills
of a water-breathing fish?
a) The gill arches.
b) The gill filaments.
c) The secondary lamellae.
d) The secondary filaments.
e) The operculum.
17. During bird inspiration (“first or second” inspiration), which of the following is occurring?
a) Air flows from the trachea into the posterior air sacs and from the posterior air sacs into the lungs.
b) Air flows from the posterior air sacs into the lungs and from the anterior air sacs into the trachea.
c) Air flows from the lungs into the anterior air sacs and from the anterior air sacs into the trachea.
d) Air flows from the trachea into the posterior air sacs and from the lungs into the anterior air sacs.
18. During inspiration in humans, which of the following does not occur?
a) The diaphragm contracts.
b) The diaphragm moves upward.
c) The chest wall expands.
d) The lungs expand.
e) Air flows through the trachea and ultimately into the alveoli.
19. Which combination of the following respiratory control systems or centres is involved in
a) Carotid body oxygen chemoreceptors and the dorsal respiratory group.
b) Central (brain) CO 2chemoreceptors and the pontine respiratory group.
c) Lung (pulmonary) stretch receptors and the pontine respiratory group.