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BIOEXAM NOTES chap 1-8.docx

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Biological Sciences

Lecture 01 Biology of Animal behavior Instinctive behavior-genetically programmed response-not learned-eg song birds, baby smiling fixed action patters-same response over and over again sign stimuli is the red spot on the beak for the gulls, babies open mouth Parasitic Species Releasers- genetic control of food preference Learned behavior-learned through experience during development inprinting-takes time- uses parental recognition wild geese imprint on mother once they are older they imprint on other geese similar to mom classical conditioning-pavlov’s dog response to bell (conditioned) food(unconditioned) operant conditioning-link voluntary with favourable reinforcement Insight learning-uses problem solving logic habituation –lack of response to unimportant stimuli – only respond to desirable things saves energy/time most animals are a bit of both Adaptive behavior-done by trial and error adapting Hormones –chemical signals that trigger specific behaviour/control neural development Lecture 02 Biology of Animal behavior Hard-wired actions-go straight to muscles –specialized area that are connected directly to behavior action so they can protect themselves from predator stimuli cause direct response in motor neurons cricket-bat interaction page 5 of slide Communication (animal signals) Acoustical-songs purpose for mating, territorial display, for young ones to learn visual-human facial expression, peacock spreading chemical-ants release pheromone for different tasks such as mating, attack, defense etc tactile-short distance-important for bonding between individuals page 16 of slide electrical –eel use this to signal threats submission or readiness to breed combinations of types –involves tactile acoustical and chemical-page 18/28 dance of honeybees animal is the signal- threat display Lecture 03 Population Ecology Ecology-interaction between organisms and environments basic ecology-focuses on undisturbed natural system applied ecology- focus on human impact on ecosystem ie ecological damage done by human Characteristics of population: 1. Geographical Range –individuals in population living in a specific area within a range ie. Habitat boundary 2. Population Density -# of individuals/unit area cm^3  large body size animals= low population density and vice versa low population density=more access to resource 3. Population dispersion Clumped Uniformed Random 4. Age structure-#of individuals of different ages Prereproductive-younger than age of sexual maturity Reproductive Postreproductive-older than max age of reproduction 5. Generation Time –average time between birth and death 6. Sex Ratio-male:females 7. Proportion Individual Demography-study of change of population size and density through overtime immigration-movement into a population factor of population increase emigration-movement out of a population population decrease Life Table-demographic population summarization-monitor survival of a cohort from birth until all cohort dies Age specific mortality –alive at start of interval and died during the age interval Age specific survivorship –individuals alive at start of interval and dies at start of the next interval Age specific fecundity –average # offspring produced by female during age interval Cohort-groups of the same age Survivorship Curve –shows rate of survival for individuals over the average lifespan of that specie TYPE I –high survivorship until later on in life such as humans and large mammals TYPE II-constant rate of death/mortality in all age classes such lizards, birds, small mammals TYPE III-high death in early life followed by low death after critical age/size ie fish, insect,plants **refer to 21/22slide Lecture 04 Population Ecology Life History- patters of growth , health, and reproduction within a specie Passive parental care-before offspring born through yolk, endosperm, nutrients across placenta Active parental care- after offspring is born One reproduction episode – uses all stored energy-maximum fecundity Multiple reproductive episode-only use some energy Exponential Models- population experiencing unlimited growth –J shaped curve Logistic models- limited population growth due to finite resources k (carrying capacity) is max number of individuals an environment can support intraspecific competition-resource limitation within species Zero Population Growth ZPG –when brith rate=death rate Crowding High density = decrease in growth rate adult size and survivorship -decreases fecundity-limited resource for reproduction- crowding population produce fewer offspring smaller offspring are likely to survive Humans have avoided effect of density dependent regulating factors in three ways: 1. Expanded geographic range reducing competition for space 2.increased K carrying capacity shitfted from hunting/ gathering to agriculture 3.advanced health ie medicine, sewage, plumbing and improving food handling/processing Lecture 05 Population Interactions Antagonistic- finding food avoid getting eaten Mutualistic-beneficial to both species eg pollination of flowers by bees Study slide4/23 Coevolutionary Relationships-both evolve(change and adapt) at the same time-one may put pressure on the other in consequence put pressure back of first specie eg cheetah chasing antelope (antelope start running faster) Predation-predator and prey interacting Rattle snakeheat sensors detect warm blooded preyinject venomuse chemical sensors to follow scent trail left by dying prey Vampire bat Herbivory-herbivore and plants interacting –herbivores have specialized teeth to harvest and grind through veggies **both have evolved cheracteristics Optimal foraging theo
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