Lec18 - Respiratory Systems.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

Respiratory Systems1 partial pressure of gassesGasping is the most rudimentary method of obtaining airPartial pressure of a gasoThe pressure exerted by a given gas within a gas mixtureComposition of airo79 nitrogeno21 oxygeno003 carbon dioxideHumans breathe to get rid of co2 not to get oxygenoOpposite for fish breathe to get oxygen not to expel co2oAt least from a controls system point of viewAir pressure is going to be the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the atmosphere2 partial pressure of gasesNormoNormal levelsoOxiaoxygenoCapniacarbon dioxideHypooDecreased levelsHypoxaemiaDecrease in blood arterial o2HyperoIncreased levels3 air vs waterAnimals can breathe either water or airAnimals have a wide variety of respiratory organsAir has 30x more oxygen than waterOxygen diffuses 10000x faster in air than in waterWater breathers need to move more water over their gills than air breathers need to move air over their lungs in order to extract the same amount of oxygenWater is 1000x more dense than airWater is 50x more viscous than airMore energy is required to move water than air over a respiratory surfaceoAs a result the fish gill has become much more efficient at extracting oxygen from water than a human lung does extracting oxygen from air4 general forms of respiratory organsLungs for air breathingoInternalGills for water breathingoExternaloInternal Active vs passive ventilation gillsoActiveMuscle contractionoPassiveMoving around in waterTidalunidirectionalnondirectional ventilationoTidalMove air in and out through same passage like tides of the ocean
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