Lec24 - Digestive Physiology.doc

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Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

Digestive Physiology16 the small intestineWhen digestion begins in the stomach food becomes referred to as chymeFood chyme will leave the stomach and enter the small intestine via the pyloric valveSmall intestine is divided into 3 segmentsoDuodenumMost important region of the small intestineA lot of absorption occurring hereA lot of digestionSite of the small intestine where it receives the secretions of thePancreas oDigestive enzymeoBicarbonateTo increase pHLiveroBile saltsCan either move directly from liver to intestine or stored in the gall bladder to be secreted into intestineooccurs on a situational basisGall bladderoJejunumoIleum Terminal region of the small intestineEmpties into the large intestine or the colon17 large surface area for absorptionSmall intestine is the site of continual digestionAlso the predominant site of absorption of breakdown products of digestion from lumen across intestinal cells and into bloodoThere are a number of anatomical features that facilitate thisProtrusions into the intestine called villiIncreases surface areaoFurther protrusions called microvilliUltimately moves into bloodoTo facilitate movement into blood each villi is supplied with its own arterial and venous vesseloSmall sugarsamino acidsfatty acids products of breakdown and digestion moving from lumen across the villi cells into the blood vesselsoVenous blood from the gut flows directly into the liveroGreen vessel called the lymphatic lacteal Role of the lymph is to drain extracellular fluid of any fluid that has leaked into it back into the blood vessels18 the large intestineDigestive foodstuffs moves from the small intestine into the colon oOr large intestineThe last region of the small intestine is the ileum oIt enters the first region of the large intestine called the cecum through what is called the illeocecal sphincter valveoControls entry of food from small to large intestineoDigestive foodstuffs moves up the ascending colon
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