Lec22 - Osmotic and Ionic Regulation.doc

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Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

Osmotic and Ionic Regulation1 osmotic and ionic regulationThe human kidneyoAnatomyoFunctionsoMicturition ie urinationthe desert ratosmotic and ionic regulation in freshwaterosmotic and ionic regulation in saltwater teleostsosmotic and ionic regulation in saltwater elasmobranchesbird salt glands2 the human kidneythe kidneys are paired organs at the inner sides of our rib cageoa renal gland sits on top of both of themorole of kidney is to filter bloodbecomes a fluid of blood plasma preurinemodified flows through nephronsforms urinedrained through ureter into bladdervoided through the urethraorenal artery branches into many different arterioles arterioles form a capillary bed called the glomerulussite at which blood is filtered into the nephronsblood is then drained by the renal veinthe kidneys filter the blood plasma every 22 minutes everything small enough to be filtered is filteredothe kidneys then reabsorb what the body wants to keepothe rest is excreted in the urine3 the human kidneycross section of the human kidneyokidney has an outer region called the cortextowards the exteriorinner region called the medulla towards the coreodivided into triangular segments called renal pyramidseach of renal pyramids are made up of lines called nephronsrenal artery branches out into individual arterioles that eventually form the capillary beds associated with each of the nephronsoblood enters the kidney through the renal arteryofluid leaves the kidney as eitherurine collected in collecting ducts then expelled through the ureter towards the bladdernon filtered blood leaves through renal vein4 the nephronthe nephrons are the functional units of the kidneyothis is where the blood is filtered oalso where the filtered fluid preurine is modified to produce urine to excrete renal artery forms many different afferent arterioles which form a capillary bed called the glomerulusothe glomerulus sits in a cuplike structure called bowmans capsuleoefferent arterioles also form capillary beds from the glomerulus which eventually drain into the renal veinofunction of the proximal tubule is to reabsorb substances
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