Chapter 22 notes (has all information on 2011 exam)

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Biological Sciences
Kamini Persaud

Chapter 22: Mechanisms of Evolution 22.1 What facts form the base of our understanding of evolution Charles Darwin: father of evolution-population has exponential growth Species are not immutable (they change over time) caused by natural selection Natural selection: differential contribution of off spring to the next generation by various genetic types belonging to the same population mechanisms by which evolution occurs (individuals do not evolve, populations do)=variation in a population Adaptation (allows organism to better able to survivereproduce): an organism is adapted to an environment when a slightly different organism survives and reproduces less well in that environment or processes by which characteristics appear to be more useful to their bearers evolve=phenotypic characteristic that has helped an organism to adjust to conditions in its environment Genotype: genetic makeup of an organism (coding) Phenotype: physical expression of an organisms genes Character: particular expression of an organisms genes, trait=specific form of a character Allele: different forms of genes, may exist at a particular locus-at any particular locus, a single individual has only some of the alleles found in the population to which it belongs For a characteristic to evolve, the variation must be heritable (partly genetic component) Evolutionary changes based on two things: a) species change over time b) changes produced by nature=must possess heritable genetic variation Population: group of individuals of a single species that selectively live together and interbreed in a particular geographic region at the same time For a population to evolve it needs heritable genetic variation and different forms of genes=alleles Nearly all populations have genetic variation for many characters
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