Differentiated Cells.docx

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOB10H3
Professor
Rene Harrison
Semester
Fall

Description
Differentiated Cells 1. What is the sperms function and cell specialization?  The sperms functions is to swim, bind, and penetrate  The sperms cell specialization includes: a. Flagella – MTs and MT motors (ATPase) b. Increase number of mitochondria – ATP c. Sperm receptor – fertilin which is an integrin protein d. Acrosome – secretory lysosome which is secreted via kinesin along MTs e. Small cell with condensed streamlined head – supercoiled DNA to make small nucleus and increase the number of histone proteins 2. What is the eggs function and cell specialization?  The eggs function is to be packed with mRNA (for transcription factors, etc) for early development, will initiate cell division shortly after fertilization, can bind sperm  The egg cell specialization includes: a. BIG cell b. Increase number of ribosomes – translation c. Integrin – binds to fertilin d. Cell division – mitotic spindle, contractile ring e. Coating – secretes protective proteins on outside 3. What is the neurons function and cell specialization?  The neurons function is for early in development: send out migratory axons towards target cells (synapses) and after differentiation: nerve impulses and formation and secretion of secretory vesicles  The neurons cell specialization includes: a. Cell migration machinery – integrin, actin, Arp 2/3 b. Nerve impulses – Na+/K+ pump, channels, etc. c. Increase number of mitochondria – ATP d. Secretion machinery – MTs (+MAPs) and kinesin, neurofilaments, actin, and myosin V 4. What is the skin epithelial cells function and cell specialization?  The function of the skin epithelial cell is to provide a continuously renewing strong, waterproof surface to protect body from environment – function in wound healing as well 5. What is the keratinocyte cell function and cell specialization?  The keratinocyte’s cell function is to provide a continuously renewing strong, waterproof surface to protect body from environment and function in wound healing as well  The keratinocyte cell specialization includes: a. Hemi-desmosomes – integrin attachment to basement membrane (with plectin & IFs); this signals to divide using division machinery, and survival signals to lose contact with ECM – apoptosis, keratin release b. Desmosomes – cadherins and IFs for mechanical strength c. Migrate over wound – migration machinery 6. What is the intestinal epithelial cells function and cell specialization?  The function of the intestinal epithelial cell is for the secretion of digestive enzymes for absorption of digested contents and keeping digestive juices away from bloodstream  The intestinal epithelial cell specialization includes: a. Hemi-desmosomes – integrin attachment to basement membrane (with plectin & IFs) b. Secretion machinery – digestive enzymes ER and golgi/secretory vesicles, MTs and kinesin c. Microvilli – actin, fimbrin, myosin I d. Tight junctions – occluding and claudins – seal 7. What is the respiratory tract epithelial cells function and cell specialization?  The function of the respiratory tract epithelial cells function is to secrete mucous to line respiratory tract and capture particles and microorganisms which moves mucous out of the body and barriers between air and internal tissue  The respiratory track epithelial cells cell specialization includes: a. Hemi-desmosomes – integrin attachment to basement membrane (with plectin & IFs) b. Secretion machinery – mucous proteins – ER/Goli/secretory vesicles, MTs and kinesin c. Cilia – MTs, MT motor (ATPase) d.
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