Summary of cytoskeleton

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Biological Sciences
Rene Harrison

Structure Description Function MonomerCompone Ends Polymerization nt Microtubules - polar (each end - stable MTs used to - composed of - (-)-charged is - -tubulin binds to structurally a little transport tubulin embedded in GTP to allow (cytoskeleton) different) organellesvesicles heterodimers (each centrosome (MT- polymerization - can see 3 from x-ray - half life: 10min (highways) with - and - organizing centre: - GTPGDP slowly crystallography - rapidly turnover - cell subunits & MTOC where after incorporation (unstable) structurekeeps polymerize to make polymerization begins into MT wall - Diseases: Alzheimers - stability can be organelles in place MTs) [with -tubulin which - polymerize (tau defect), increased by binding - flagellacilia is structurally depolymerize at (+)- neurogenerative dieases MAPS (MT- beating different from - and charged (motor defects), flagellacilia defects, associated proteins; - mitotic spindle -) enddynamic MAP2, tau) to walls formation - (+)-charged extends instability taxol (chemotherapy of MTs to prevent toward plasma - polymerize into a agent) MTs from membrane protofilament - cilia (respiratory depolymerizing (arrange around a epithelium), flagella hollow core: forms (sperm) the MT) Microtubule Motors - multiprotein - move - dynesin moves to complexes vesicleorganelles (-) end (retrograde) - 2 domains: MT- cargo along MTs - kinesin moves to binding domain & (+) end (anterograde) cargo binding domain - move according to polarity of MTs -ATPases Dynesin - MT-binding domain - site of ATP - holds Golgi in place (Microtubule Motor) - 2 heavy chains (polypeptides)globular head hydrolysis - moves endosomes, phagosomes, - several light chains: bind to dynactin (protein that - moves to (-) end lysosomes to interior of cell (retrograde) mediates binding to cargo)binds to cargo - moves chromosomes to the (-) - moves several nm end of poles during mitosis per ATP hydrolyzed Kinesin - MT-binding domain cargo binding domain - moves to (+) end - moves secretory vesicles, (Microtubule Motor) - 2 heavy chains (anterograde) peroxisomes, mitochondria - 2 light chains: bind to kinectinkinesin receptor on towards plasma membrane
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